Magazine “CULTURE, NATION”,
Number 8, December 2014
Vadzim Shyshko: THE ADDRESS TO THE BELARUSIAN ELITE
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 6-15)
The author considers interrelations between physiological and mental human development in application to the native language usage, in particular, for Pastavy region of Belarus, and, generally for Belarus. Understanding that the Belarusian language is in depressive conditions because of preferable usage of Russian language the author is questioning why and what should undertake Belarusian elite, local and as a whole, to improve the situation with native language. The author utilises the theories and opinions of Maslow, Humboldt, and Sapir, the prominent scientists, who demonstrated the role of social and language practices in the humankind thinking, to stress that Belarusian intellectuals should continue the work in term of enlightenment of population, and usage of Belarusian language. It is absolutely necessary to oppose to the global processes of extinction of different languages and cultures, and to keep for children Belarusian language and traditions while living in a diversity world.
Aljaksandr Zgerski: WHAT BOTHERS RUSSIA OR THE CULTIVATION OF RESSENTIMENT
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 16-35)
It is discussed the reasons why the majority of Russian population supports the Crimea annexation and the war in the East of Ukraine provoked by Putin’s government. Why Russians think that the only fascists live in Ukraine and the whole world wants Russia misfortune?
Author analyses this behavior from the point of view of “ressentiment”. A ressentiment is the term of philosophy which defines the morality of slaves, negative human complexes based on envy towards the more powerful and successful ones, and the cultivation of image of the enemy. Such system of human values can’t create anything of his own while destroying the value system of the enemy. Ressentiment morality opposes the noble morality of freedom-loving person.
Russia began the aggression in the neighboring country by rising, using and at the same time cultivating a large resentment chauvinistic complex which dreamt until the time in the mysterious Russian soul. Going back to history the appearance of that complex might be observed during the reign of Ivan III in the end of 15 century, Ivan IV in the second half of 16 century, and later. As Karl Marx wrote, “Muscovy was raised and grew up in a horrible and infamous school of the Mongolian slavery. It became so strong due to absorption of virtuosa art of slavery. Even after its release from Mongols, Muscovy continued to play its traditional role of servant who became the owner. Then Peter the Great combined the political art of Mongolian slave with the proud aspirations of the Mongol ruler, to whom Genghis Khan bequeathed to carry out his plan to conquer the world”.
Such sort of mentality continued then after revolution and how it is reasonable indicated by Berdyaev once again won the “mass”. It appears it was directed by ressentimental slogans of Bolsheviks: all the land to the peasants, factories to workers, and peace to the nations. From other side, according to slave morality there were found the enemies, the aristocracy, the bourgeoisie, kulaks, intellectuals, imperialists and so on. In general, the enemies were needed for the Soviet Union to his existence as well. Discussing the morality in the Soviet Union the author referred to the experience of Russian writer Shalamov who spent many years in the GULAG. It was clear that in a certain extent prison terms and orders, together with prisoners who have served their term, came gradually in a civil society. Over the hundreds of years, the authorities in Russia cultivated the complex of a person which is lackey, liar, thief, and as a consequence that’s why it is necessary to have a strong hand, Lord, tsar who will keep everyone in the correct order.
However, the mentality of Russians and mentality of people from other post-soviet countries, in particular Belarusians and Ukrainians, are different. Mental-psychological map of nations formed over the centuries, this process is not always in sight. Over the past 200-250 years Belarusians often suffered defeats in nation-state building. Although not everyone want to see the national peculiarities of the peoples of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Again, there are a lot of examples to show how ressentimental complexes of Russian people were cultured and then deployed towards their neighbours, in particular Belarus and Ukraine, during the last 10-15 years. It is necessary to understand that the “Russian World” that Russian propaganda offers to modern neighboring nations will hold only a dictatorship, militarism, repression and suppression of freedom. People who want to live in independent democratic countries should be aware of this and stand together against the strengthening of the dictatorship.
Piotra Murzionak: IN VOLOGDA! – WHERE?!
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 36-40)
Soviet Union collapsed, Belarus gained independence, however, and as before the state prefers only Russian-language songs (look at “Slavic Bazaar”. Nothing has changed since Soviet times. The language law, adopted by the Supreme Council at the beginning of independence movement for 10-year period (1990), was deliberately forgotten by the newly elected head of state and his followers. Moreover, the pressure went on all Belarusian. But when Lukashenka, Mjasnikovich, Tozik will be retired who will be responsible for the failure of native language and national policies?
If to conduct historical parallels with Quebec and Scotland (look at the recent referendums), Belarus has for nation-building only 30-40 years and if the current situation won’t change, it will be nobody even to talk about Belarusian identity. It might be that Belarusians will be the part of the “Russian world”. The prospect of the status for the native language as a dialect grows significantly – Astrakhan, Vologda, Kostroma … Belarusian dialects. After all it is clear, without language there is no nation.
It should be noted that 83.7 citizens of Belarus consider themselves as Belarusians. This is a potency which still not fully utilized by the national elite. Liberal values and the protection of religious and democratic freedoms can not be removed from the agenda, but it can not be decisive in changing the leadership of the country, and in a durable and long-term nation-building. Only the main provisions of national idea might be crucial and will lead to significant changes in the society.
The current scenario of a single candidate definition is the same as in previous elections, the results of which are known (2001, 2006, and 2010). Association with the aim of regime change is an important goal; however, it is difficult to imagine how some organizations will fight national independence when some of the parties entering into a coalition have no words for the nation and national interests in their programs.
The best outcome in the current situation it would be to create a national platform supported by the movements, parties, organizations, and while each with its own specific objectives, approaches and tools, to determine the leaders who would be able to implement the ideas of that platform. It would be possible to say about success in the construction of the Belarusian national state when the change in people’s minds will be visible not only in Minsk, but in Vitebsk, Grodno, Brest…
Iryna Khadarenka: NATION VS. PROFANATION?
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 41-46)
The essay is dedicated to the complexity of the nation-building process in modern Belarus on a background of ideological competition between ethnic-primordial and common-civic concepts of the nation. The author mentioned that before the realization of civic nation’s model in the Belarusian society, it’s necessary to define a clear basis of national idea, language, symbols, values and traditions. And it’s absolutely not correct to use the nationality and the citizenship as synonyms. Belarusian identity could be manifested among citizens of different countries, and at the same time various Belarusian citizens do not have to identify themselves namely as Belarusians.
Vadzim Shyshko: THE SLAVS?
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 47-57)
It is discussed the role of Finno-Ugor and Mongol-Tatar tribes, Orthodox and Islam religions in the development of Muscovy state. The involving the term “Slavs” into the history of Muscovy state began in 15-17 centuries when it was necessary to rationalise the war against the Great Duchy of Lithuania (GDL), and to take the territories where lived the current Belarusians (then Krivichi-Slavs-Ruthens). During the 13-year war (1654-1657) almost 300 000 Slavs-Ruthens from the GDL were translocated to the Muscovy state. Then, the same approach was applied while destroying Rech Pospolita in the end of 18 century and as result huge territories populated with Slavs were joined to Russian Empire (Rossijskaja Imperia). The story of Russian state based on Slavs foundation was exploited by N. Karamsin and other Russian historicians to prove Slavic character of Russian Empire, the idea that is now criticised even in Russia itself. It is very important now to distinguish the Belarusians – the ancestors of assimilated Slavic-Baltic tribes, and Great Russians – the ancestors of different ethnic groups including Finno-Ugro and Mongol-Tatar ones.
Vadzim Shyshko: PHYSIOLOGY OF NATIONALISM
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 58-68)
Considering the origins and problems of nationalism emergence in the 18-20 centuries, it is argued that nationalism is working on the development, protection and promotion of their nation. An analogy with animal communities is compared where the same sequence of events occurs – association in society, help in protection against various hazardous external factors, and mastering the greatest possible areas of residence. Gives The following definition of nationalism is presented: ‘Nationalism – it’s the same struggle for survival based on animal instinct of self-preservation and supported by technological progress of the human mind. “To the question how to position oneself to nationalism the answer is “in the same way as to all our animals needs (food, sleep, sex, security, etc.).”
If we ever abandon nationalism, this will lead to the result that we will lose habitat where we live, our language, our national identity. And finally, the disappearance of our Belarusian nation – it is only a matter of time. The author gives examples of different ways to destroy an ethnicity – physical, spiritual and combined. The spiritual way of destroying the Belarusian nation partly was used Poles as polonization (in 18 century, and in 20 century in the interwar period). The physical destruction of our ethnos was used by Russians spontaneously during the 13-year war in the 17th century, and specifically by Germans during the 2nd World War. The Belarusian nation was destroying our Russian neighbors via combined physical-spiritual way in the 19-20th centuries.
The current colonial expansion by more powerful states is going now on more refined scheme than the previous primitive armed intervention, namely through cultural expansion and economic dependence of neighboring weaker countries. Interrelations between Russia and Belarus today are a vivid example. In fact, the further expansion of the ‘Russian world’ will lead to physical and spiritual destruction of our people. Survival instinct in Belarusians themselves has not worked yet. If we want to survive at least physically, we must urgently begin the politics of nationalism in the state. Of course, this must be done carefully, so you do not accidentally go too far. But the delay is impossible in any case if we do not want to die out like the dinosaurs.
Discussion “NATION BUILDING AND MODERNITY – 2014”
Participants: Iryna Khadarenka, Inga Popovaite, Anton Shekhovtsov, Piotra Murzionak
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 69-80)
On-line Skype discussion was organized by magazine “CULTURE, NATION” on November 24, 2014. Two main topics were discussed: “The Nation-building in post-soviet countries: commonalities and differences” and “Interrelationships between nationalism, patriotism, and chauvinism”.
CONGRATULATIONS TO MR. ANATOLI CHRENOWSKI ON 80-JUBILEE
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2014, issue 8, pp. 81-86)
Anatoly CHRENOWSKI – the famous figure of the Belarusian emigration in North America, made this year his 80th birthday anniversary. Anatoly CHRENOWSKI was born on March 3, 1934 in Slonim, Belarus. After World War II, along with his parents forced appeared in the West, and in 1949 arrived to Montreal, Canada. Since then he lived in this city and only recently moved to the small town of Sutton, which is near the border with the United States.
Anatoly CHRENOWSKI has a wonderful family, his wife Christine, daughters, Larissa and Alena, and his sons Anton and Gregory. Family in the life of every person plays an important role. The Anatoly CHRENOWSKI family is very special as it took an active part in the life of Belarusians in Montreal and Quebec, where the leader was Anatoly CHRENOWSKI. The chief assistant for Anatoly in all Belarusian affairs is his wife, Christine. Thanks to her and to Anatoly the Belarusian language, traditions and spirit of Belarus are supported in the family.
If we talk about the social life of Anatoly Ivanovich, you need first of all to say that he is the member of the Belarusian People’s Republic. Second, thanks to his efforts 25 years ago (1989) was formed Association of Belarusians in Quebec in which he headed all the time. Thanks to his efforts, the Belarusians were presented at various important events and activities, which was attended by the people from different cultures living in Canada; in particular, it was organized the Belarusian corner in the Saint Joseph Oratorium (Montreal), the Belarusian part of the exhibition at the Museum of different cultures in Rawdon. Much has been made in favor of the Belarusians – the unity of Belarusians, organization of festivals and events, publication of the magazine “PRAMEN”, participation in political actions.
Editorial Board “CULTURE, NATION” sincerely congratulates Anatoly Ivanovich CHRENOWSKI, and wish him good health, enjoyment of life, well-being of his family, and further good deeds for the benefit of the motherland.
Web-magazine “CULTURE, NATION”
Viktar Kavaleuski: IDEOLOGICAL UTOPIAS, SECRET AGREEMENTS, WAR AND MIGRATION (Part of the author’s book, ‘And Who Goes There?’)
(abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, September 2014, issue 7, pp. 6-10)
The author analyses the reasons for migration of Belarusians to Australia after the II World War. Mainly, it was due to existence of two dictatorships, Nazi and communist, and their desire to control the mass of the population through any possible social mechanisms including the art. Both dictatorships are very similar to each other as by facade as by concentration camps hidden from the eyes. The main target for those regimes was the individuality of persons, their right to be independent, and their willingness to express opinions and freedoms. Until now, the officials in Belarus call those people who demand their individual rights not associated with the ideological state doctrines as nationalists or fascists. Many of those migrated Belarusians actively participated in the social, religious and paramilitary organizations in Australia with the only aim – to live for Belarus.
Piotra Murzionak: NEXT PERIOD FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL IDEA IN BELARUS WILL BE FAVORABLE
(abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, September 2014, issue 7, pp.11-16)
The analysis of the three mainly favorable and three unfavorable periods for nation-building in Belarus during the last century was conducted. Next period in the development of the national idea will be favorable. This is due to the historical development of society and that conclusion is largely consistent with the Krukouski’ theory of cyclical social and cultural development.
A balance between internal and external factors affecting the construction of the nation in that future period will be decisive. In many ways, it will be definitely directed by a positive example of Ukraine in nation-building. It is possible that there will be changes in Russian politics – from the expansionism to the internal development of society and to the needs of many peoples of the Russian Federation. The degree of Russia’ pressure will determine the tactics of the modern Belarusian leadership – from facing to the national idea to complete her infidelity.
Piotra Murzionak: BELARUS DOESN’T BELONG TO EURASIA or NATIONAL IDEA TODAY
(abstract, magazine “ CULTURE, NATION”, September 2014, issue 7, pp.17-25)
Belarus and Ukraine as inseparable parts of the East Slavic civilization historically, ethnically and mentally differ significantly from the Eurasian (Russian) civilization. Commitment of Russia to draw Belarus and Ukraine into the Eurasian Economic Union will inevitably lead to the existence of Belarusians and Ukrainians in the framework of the eurasian ideology that does not assume the creation of their nation-states. Switching of the state, pro-government researchers and politicians from the support of pan-slavic ideology onto the eurasian ideology due to the temporary considerations of economic expediency leads to the forgetfulness of the national idea and to delayed prospects of national state building. The results of the war between Russia and Ukraine, our partner in the East Slavic civilization, will be a key factor determining the future of both Ukraine and Belarus.
Tadeusz Struzhetsky: BACK TO HOMELAND
(abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, September 2014, issue 7, pp. 26-29)
The celebrations on the occasion of 50th anniversary after death of the outstanding organist, Polish musician, composer, journalist, and teacher Bronislaw Rutkowski (1898-1964) held this summer in Kamai and Pastavy, Belarus, and in Krakow, Poland. B. Rutkowski, originated from Kamai, began here his creative career as assistant organist in the Church of St. John the Baptist. Later he already played the organ in church Kabylniki (now the village Narach). Further his life and career was connected with Poland. B. Rutkowski is the creator of the post-war Krakow organ school, which became the foundation for not only the Polish organ musics, but also spread to other countries in Eastern Europe.
To commemorate B. Rutkowski in the Church of St. John the Baptist met locals from the neighborhood, as well as numerous guests. After a solemn mass the concert of organ music was performed by Marek Stefansky. The special sign devoted to B. Rutkowski was opened in the park adjacent to the temple. The participants of the event layed flowers at the graves of B. Rutkowski’ parents and relatives.
Joseph Campbell: MAN AND MYTH
(abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, September 2014, issue 7, pp. 30-41)
A Russian translation by Oleg Bouevitch of selected lectures by Joseph Campbell on the topics of traditional and personal mythology. A brief comparison of Eastern and Western religions is followed by Campbell’s views of one’s personal mythology and its connection to one’s psychology.
Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American mythologist, writer and lecturer, best known for his work in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work is vast, covering many aspects of the human experience. His philosophy is often summarized by his phrase: “Follow your bliss” (from Campbell’s Wikipedia page).
Piotra Murzionak: RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AGAINST NATIONALISM OF BELARUSIANS AND UKRANIANS
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, June 2014, issue 6, pp. 7-24)
Russian language is used as a motive and a tool of aggression in Ukraine along with military means. There is a considerable spread of daily use of the Russian language in Ukraine and Belarus, as well as external linguistic, cultural, economic and military pressure of Russia. How is the construction of nation-states in these conditions being seen?
This paper discusses the definition of Russian language versus word “russian=русский (by nationality)”, slavyanskasts (belonging to Slavs) of the Russian ethnic group, the difference between the East Slavic and Eurasian civilizations, as well as prospects about the development of the Belarusian and Ukrainian nations under Russian pressure.
Peter Murzenak: HOW MANY BELARUSIANS LIVE ACROSS THE WORLD
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, June 2014, issue 6, pp. 25-29)
Based on calculations, it was estimated that:
1. About 400,000-500,000 Belarusians live far abroad.
2. Giving 7.9 millions Belarusians live in homeland, 1.1 million in the neighboring countries, and 0.4-0.5 million far abroad it results in about 9.5 million ethnic Belarusians in the whole world.
3. Belarusians living in other countries (1.5-1.6 million) consist approximately one sixth (about 16%) of the total number of Belarusians in the world.
Peter Murzenak: MIGRATION OF BELARUSIANS TO CANADA IN COMPARISON WITH NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, June 2014, issue 6, pp. 30-39)
1. The number of Belarusians in Canada in 2011 compared to 1991 increased 5.5 times, from 2,830 to 15,565 people.
2. In 2011, 95% of Belarusians lived in four Canadian provinces: Ontario (8,785, or 56%), British Columbia (2,135), Alberta (1,965), and Quebec (1,895). Forty percent of Belarusians live in Toronto (6,215).
3. Relative increase in the number of people of Belarus in Canada from 1991 to 2011, compared to its neighbours, was the smallest (134 per 100 thousand inhabitants of Belarus; compared to Estonia – 148, Russia – 274, Latvia – 329, Ukraine – 432 Lithuania – 554, Poland – 705). Based on data from Canada, we can assume that the Belarusians are quite conservative in their migration aspirations.
4. The proportion of Belarusians in Canada who use their native language at home is quite small (3.9%) and reflects the language situation in the homeland (for comparison Ukrainians – 9.6%, Lithuanians – 15.5%, Poles – 19.9%, Latvians – 23.6%, Russians – 30.9%).
Vaclau Lastouski: WHAT IS NECESSARY TO KNOW TO EACH BELARUSIAN?
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, June 2014, issue 6, pp. 40-49)
The editorial board has decided to give a translation into Russian of the well-known article of Vaclau Lastouski “What is necessary to know to each Belarusian?” Why into Russian? The Belarusian language is the basic language of magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, but we place materials in any language if the subject matter concerns directions of magazine (with mandatory supply of a short content on the native language). However, the decision about translation of Lastouski’ article into Russian goes not from a good faith as people shouldn’t need the translation to read their native tongue. First of all, people who read, become ever less. Secondly, realities are those, that Belarusians read basically just the Russian literature (in the market of Belarus 85% of books is printed not in native but in Russian language). The approach of editorial board is a such; that if even one person will become interested in translation of this article into Russian, it is necessary to do it due to the content of the article. We should fight for everyone Belarusian, everyone who has the desire not only to write in the questionnaire that he is Belarusian (it is possible only feeling himself as the citizen of Belarus or as being relevant to the country territory) but also to behave as the Belarusian.
Many Lastouski’ ideas reflected in his article and published almost a hundred years ago are still applicable for Belarusians today (translation is given not completely but only those its parts which are conformable the present, except maybe for section about family).
Next issue will be published in September 2014
Viktoryia Kozlova: BELARUSIAN PERSPECTIVE on CRISIS in UKRAINE
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, March 2014, issue 5, pp. 6-9)
This short article looks at a Belarusian perspective and which possibilities Belarus can take advantage of, while the turmoil continues in Ukraine. First, the paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of its geographical position with respect to the EU and Russia. Second, it focuses on the implications for energy distribution in the region. The article summarizes a Belarusian perspective on Ukraine crisis.
Archbishop Sviataslau Login, the Head of the Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church: BELARUSIAN MIRACULOUS ICONS OF THE MOTHER OF GOD
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, March 2014, issue 5, pp. 10-13)
This review is about miraculous icons of the Mother of God known in Belarus. The Lord granted the Belarusian land by many miracles among them there are the miracle-working icons, most of which the Mother of God. They have spiritual wealth of the nation, such as St. Cross of Euphrasinnia of Polatsk. The story of those icons is the part of the history not only of Belarusian Church, but also of all Belarus. Today more than 200 icons are known. Some of the icons are from the time of Kievan Rus, the others – of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania when the Orthodox Church was independent. There is a list of those icons on the site of the Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (www.belapc.org). Various fates are for miraculous icons. Many of them disappeared or were exported from Belarus, and there are copies for some of them.Some of the icons are absolutely unique, for example, Kupyatsitskaya icon (in the form of cross) (Kupiatsichy Cross Icon of Theotokos) appeared by miracle way in 1182 on Paliessie.
Piotra Murzionak: NATION AND FREEDOM
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, March 2014, issue 5, pp. 14-37)
Who is to blame of global moral crisis, injustice, poverty, wars, violations of rights and freedoms – liberal democrats, ideas of multi–polar world, imperial ambitions, religion, double standards?It is obvious that humanity has lost the common goals and violates the principles and criteria for the achievement of these goals.Instead of a new round of the Cold War and real wars, the signs of which are becoming more visible, mankind would have to agree on new principles of existence and cooperation to establish peace and order in the world, on important joint actions against poverty, diseases and natural disasters.
Double standards that stronger nations apply to small nations show disregard for the principles of democracy, justice and goodness. For the sake of economic gain superpowers tradeby people’s fate seeking freedom. A striking example of such double standards is the modern conflict in Europe caused by the desire of Ukraine to obtain the status of association with the EU. Russian military aggression against Ukraine showed disrespect for international laws and infringes on the freedom, sovereignty and territory of independent, recently brotherly country. One of the reasons for Russia’s aggression is its traditional movement to the west, based on the Eurasian ideology that threatens the existence of not only democracy and freedom, but also nations. Russian aggression confirmed almost 800-year-old division between two civilizations – the Eurasian (Russian) and Eastern Slavic Belarusian-Ukrainian. Of those countries that guarantee the security and sovereignty of Ukraine(Russia, U.S., UK), Russia violated international agreement while the United States and Great Britain were bankrupt because they could not deliver on their responsibilities. Thus, even in our time a national freedom might be threatened by meansof weapons. Chechnya, Georgia, and Ukraine – what is next and when?
It seems that the role of nations or nation-states will not decrease, despite the trend towards supranational entities (European Union, Customs Union, and other unions). Events that happened in Yugoslavia and those are now taking place in Ukraine (November 2013 – March 2014) show that the process of nation-building continues even in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. There is a belief that in the future a nation-building in Belarus and in other post-Soviet countries (Kazakhstan, Latvia) will also be completed. To a large extent this will depend on the balance of positive and negative factors which may affect the strengthening of national freedom (Table 3). Among the strongest positive influence factors are the possibility of modern nation-building and the activities of national elite, among the negative ones – low level of political culture, non-supporting of Belarusian language by the government, the threat of possible aggression, religion. Belarusians intolerance towards people of other races, religions, behavior belongs to negative influence factors as well. It would seemed that the absence of European mentality in that sense is a good sign for a healthy nationalism, since nationalism-patriotism in such a situation could have an advantage over global processes, however, a disrespect for freedom of some categories of people could not contribute to the strengthening of national freedom.
Attitude of Belarusians to freedom characterized by uncertainty due to the lack of political culture and traditions of Russian and Soviet legacy; public support for the ideas of democracy is combined with a positive attitude to an authoritarian management style.
Only aware of the presence of civil liberties and using political freedoms a person can grasp the significance of national freedom. We can assume that there is a hierarchy of freedoms (individual – political – national); basic freedoms are individual freedoms and rights. Substitution of civil liberties by human socio-economic rights, along with a lack of political culture and traditions interrupts the achievement of nation freedom, as it leads to the loss of national pride and an unwillingness to maintain the old history and culture and to a nihilistic attitude toward their nation and its freedom. Level of political rights and freedoms and national freedom is the level of the active work of the national elites. However, the conditions for such work in Belarus are unfavorable.
The balance of positive and negative forces in Belarus, according to our five-point scale calculations, directed to the negative part. The key factors that can change the balance towards positive direction are primarily internal factors, namely the understanding of the importance of strengthening of national freedom by population, entrepreneurs, and the state leadership. Among the strongest negative factor that would need to be reduced or eliminated, is the threat of occupation, however, with the understanding that “awakens” among Western democracies, it is a hope, that the negative influence of this factor can be removed in favor of small peoples and nations. Together with the increased role of other positive factors that would significantly change the motion of the Belarusians to the national freedom.
Galina Tumilovich: NOT NOBEL PRIZE LAUREATE
(abstract, magazine “SAKAVIK”, March 2014, issue 5, pp. 38-46)
The reflections of the author caused by the nominating of Svetlana Aleksievich for the Nobel Prize 2013 in literature are presented. Reasonings of the author full of emotions (grief) are caused first of all by that the fact of Aleksievich promotion on, perhaps, most prestigious premium, has not caused as a whole the benevolent response in Belarusian information space. It appears that the popular on the West Belarusian writer was not welcomed by domestic critics (with few exceptions of the Belarusian literature key figures). The aversion of her personality was associated with her «Soviet background» as well as with the writing in Russian and in reporter style of work. The author gives a panoramic picture of Aleksievich work highlighting the most prominent subjects of her works that represent at the same time complex instants of history such as War, the Afghanistan campaign, the USSR, and Chernobyl disaster. It is explained that the Belarusian writer, perhaps, initially addressed to the western reader. Speaking about writing in Russian, it is necessary to have in view of some factors the main thing from which is that the author was born and has grown during an epoch of the USSR. During the narration-reflection the author of this essay widely mentions facts from the life experience, shares the experiences and feelings.
Next issue will be published in June 2014