Piotra Murzionak: Neutrality and Security of Small Countries
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2016, issue 16, pp. 15–23)
The concept of neutrality, although unrealized per se until the end, still keeps its appeal to the peoples of small countries both in Europe and in the whole world. International laws governing until now the relations between the neutral and the belligerent countries were adopted by the Hague Conferences (1899 and 1907), and the desire of small states to be neutral in one degree or another is respected in Europe today. The idea of neutrality is dictated by the desire of small nations to break the pressure of Great states to ensure their safety. Aggressive geopolitics of the Great States is in conflict with the wishes of small nations to be free, independent and live in peace. Despite the creation of the collective security systems (Westphal, 1648; Vienna, 1815, the League of Nations, 1919-1920; United Nations, 1945; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1995), which greatly reduce or even cancel the implementation of the policy of neutrality, it is thought that its potential is far from being realized, especially for countries that are not EU members. This is evidenced as by the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement as by the recent declarations by a number of countries about their neutrality.