ABSTRACTS, 2016, #13-16

Magazine

“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 16, December 2016

Piotra Murzionak: Editorial to 16th issue of web-magazine “Culture, Nation”     (magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, issue 16, December 2016, pp.4-5).

The new issue of magazine begins with “Strategy of Belarusian Nation Development” that was under public discussion in 2016. Neutrality of Belarus is discussed by P. Murzionak in two articles to support the Strategy. A few materials in commemoration of 125th anniversary of famous Belarusian poet M. Bagdanovich written by S.Paniznik, K. Ezavitau (from archive), and N. Debolskaja are published. The article by S. Paniznik is devoted to the 90th Anniversary of the Academic Conference on the Belarusian Spelling Reform and Alphabet.

Piotra Murzionak: Neutrality and Security of Small Countries

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2016, issue 16, pp. 1523)  

The concept of neutrality, although unrealized per se until the end, still keeps its appeal to the peoples of small countries both in Europe and in the whole world. International laws governing until now the relations between the neutral and the belligerent countries were adopted by the Hague Conferences (1899 and 1907), and the desire of small states to be neutral in one degree or another is respected in Europe today. The idea of neutrality is dictated by the desire of small nations to break the pressure of Great states to ensure their safety. Aggressive geopolitics of the Great States is in conflict with the wishes of small nations to be free, independent and live in peace. Despite the creation of the collective security systems (Westphal, 1648; Vienna, 1815, the League of Nations, 1919-1920; United Nations, 1945; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1995), which greatly reduce or even cancel the implementation of the policy of neutrality, it is thought that its potential is far from being realized, especially for countries that are not EU members. This is evidenced as by the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement as by the recent declarations by a number of countries about their neutrality.

Piotra Murzionak: Neutrality of Belarus as the Transition to a Global System of Collective Security

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2016, issue 16, pp. 2432)  

The neutrality of Belarus is seen as one of the basic conditions for realization of the             “Strategy of Belarusian Nation Development”. Neutrality, acquired with the support of society through a referendum, could provide the legal and moral basis for the country to be out of aggressive military blocs and at the same time paving the way to join the global system(s) of collective security. Despite the criticism of realists considering the idea of neutrality for Belarus as an utopia, the adoption of the status of neutrality can be respectful and perhaps the only step in the moral and legal framework in order to escape from the heavy colonial dependence on Russia. Obviously, for such a policy must be a political decision of a sovereign state itself, as well as the changes in the political climate in the whole world. Neutrality\armed neutrality for Belarus is based on the peaceful mood of the Belarusian population, on the legal norm of striving to be a neutral state (the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, Art. 18), on membership in the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations, on diversity of Belarusian economy, and on the examples of other countries which want to break the pressure of Great powers.

Siarhei Paniznik: Exciting Moments. To the 125th Anniversary of Maksim Bagdanovich

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2016, issue 16, pp. 3345)  

 December 9, 2016 marks 125 years since the birth of Maksim Bagdanovich. The “Culture, Nation” magazine prints a selection of materials sent by Belarusian poet, translator and novelist, Siarhei Paniznik. This interesting and rich collection includes the author’s notes “Staying Moments” about “meeting” with the poet in Yalta, two poems devoted to M. Bagdanovich, translation of the poem of the Ukrainian poet Nikolai Petrenko, a kind of report by S. Paniznik in the definition of the 125 anniversary of the birth of the Poet, as well as archival paper by K. Ezavitau “Unpublished works of Maksim Bagdanovich” (from the magazine “Novy Shljakh” (“New Way”), number 1, 1944, Riga).

Nina Debolskaja: From the experience of the French translation of Maksim Bagdanovich’s poems

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2016, issue 16, pp. 4657)  

I became interested in working on translations of Maksim Bagdanovich’s poems 15 years ago after taking part in the International scientific-practical conference in Minsk Literature Museum of Maksim Bagdanovich. The poet himself, obviously, attracted to French poetry – translated poems of Paul Valery, Emile Verhaeren, Alexis Felix Arveyres and took lines for epigraphs from Boileau, Hugo, Sully-Prudhomme, Sainte-Beuve, Verlaine. My job allowed me to reveal deeper meanings and melodies of poetic works of Maksim Bagdanovich. Very valuable clues in the translation I received from the Belarusian poetess Nina Matyash and from poet-translators Sergey Paniznik and Ivan Bursau. My experience shows that it is much easier to translate into French from Belarusian than from Russian language, as in the Belarusian language there is not only common Slavic basis, discarded the unnecessary complex shapes, but also Latin lining and, dare I say, Latin logic of thinking. Flowers from “Wjanka” (wreath) of Belarusian poet Maksim Bagdanovich do not fade, his vasilki (cornflowers) decorate a wreath of European poets of the early twentieth century. Not surprisingly, that you want to transfer and in the twenty-first century its beautiful poetic works.

Siarhei Paniznik: On the 90th Anniversary of the Academic Conference on the Belarusian Spelling Reform and Alphabet (14-21.XI.1926)

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2016, issue 16, pp. 5862)  

Academic Conference on the reform of Belarusian spelling and alphabet, which was held in Minsk on 14 – 21 November 1926, has played a crucial role in Belarusization of the State. In addition, in the words of S. Nekrashevich, it was the first scientific output of Belarus in the international arena. Among the delegates were Janis Rainis, Latvian Minister of Education, E. Blesse, Associate Professor, University of Latvia, U. Piguleuski, Director of the Belarusian Gymnasium in Lucyna, K. Ezavitau, Editor of the newspaper “Voice of Belarusian”, V. Lastouski, scientist and publisher from Kovno, guests from other countries – P. Rastargueu, M. Birzhyshka, Yu. Galombek, M. Fasmer … In 1926, the Kremlin has expressed dissatisfaction with conference. Later, it was proclaimed as the Congress of Belarusian nationalists and counter-revolutionaries. Many participants of the “general meeting of national-democrats” were repressed and rehabilitated only in the late 1950s.

Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 15, September 2016

Piotra Murzionak: Editorial to the 15th issue of the web-magazine “CULTURE, NATION” (“CULTURE, NATION”, Issue 15, September 2016, 100 pages)

The Magazine begins with upgraded project “The Strategy of Belarusian Nation Development”. The project includes the provisions that have been brought up for discussion since the previous issue. We continue to accept the readers’ proposals to improve the “Strategy”.

In September issue the main materials devoted to the coverage of the 32nd Convention of the Belarusians of North America, which was held in the hotel “Lord Elgin” in Ottawa from 3 to 5 September, are published.  The conventions of Belarusians take place every two years, starting from the first at Niagara Falls in 1952. They are traditionally organized by the Belarusian-Canadian Alliance (BCA) and the Belarusian-American Association (BAA). The honor of hosting of the current convention fell on Belarusians in Ottawa.

Magazine “Culture, Nation” was directly involved in the organization and holding of the 32nd Convention, which took the name of “Diaspora: National Consciousness and the Development of Civil Society and Culture.” The magazine initiated the event in Ottawa, suggested the first version of the program and format of the convention, and was one of its sponsors. The proposed by the magazine program and format was discussed and adopted by Ottawa organizing committee and then approved by the Council Board of the BCA (November 1, 2015) and agreed with the leadership of BAA.

In the 15th issue, we provide the program of 32-nd Convention, lectures and presentations (with the consent of the authors), and the Convention resolution which are in fully agreement with the direction of the magazine “Culture, Nation” activities. In particular, in the keynote lectures sounded the issues of implementation of the cultural program “Let’s be together!” (A. Makovsky), the formation and support of the Belarusian identity abroad (P. Survilla), analysis of historical and future aspects of the development of the Belarusian identification (G. Tumilovich).

Most of the speeches in the debate concerning the problems of the Belarusian diaspora in the US and Canada were devoted to: summarizing activities of  BINIM Canada over the last fifty years (Z. Gimpelevich), the creation of English-language information space between Belarus and the United States (V. Bortnik), the art of embroidery (I. Varabei) , the nature of relations between the Belarusians abroad (P. Murzionak), the possible establishment of Belarusian museum in the North America (V. Stankevich), the need to support financially and by the correspondent participation to the diaspora newspaper “Belarus” (H. Surmach).

Scientific and cultural events that took place at the event held in accordance with the program. The meeting was attended by about 90 people from the cities of Belarus, Canada and the United States – Ottawa, Washington, Grodno, Cleveland, Montreal, Minsk, Naples (Florida), Toronto, New York, Philadelphia. The congratulations were sent from the Prime Minister of the Province of Ontario, Kathleen Wynne, and from the Minister of Canadian Heritage, Melanie Joli.

Immediately hailed the meeting – Bishop Sviataslau, the Primate BAOC; Ivonka Survilla, President of the BNR Rada; David Kilgour, former MP of the Canadian Parliament; Keith Egli, Deputy of the city council; Andris Kesteris, representative of the Latvian and Baltic diasporas; Stanislaw Zaborowski, representative of the Polish diaspora; Nikolai Bilaniuk, representative of the Ukrainian diaspora; Zjanon Pazniak, chairman of the Conservative Christian Party; Yuri Akula, a participant of meeting from Montreal; participants listened to a video message from Sergei Paniznik.

During the meeting the following cultural events were held: the boat trip on the Ottawa river, meeting in a bar with bard Vladimir Shalkevich, visit to the Canadian Parliament, poetry evening with Yuri Chametka and Piotra Murzionak; in each of these events has been involved up to 50 guests. 32th Convention had the great success because of the friendly team of Ottawa’ Belarusians; the team was being prepared during the year and kept the event in dignity until the end.

In the interview, Piotra Murzionak, the author of the book “Ways of the Development of the Belarusian Nation” (published in August 2016), answers to the questions of Sergei Kondratenko, a spokesman for “World Association of Belarusians” Fatherland” (“Backaushchyna”). The book examines the problems of development of the Belarusian nation, involved in the theoretical foundations of the construction of the Belarusian state, the development strategy of the Belarusian nation, the mentality of the Belarusians, the relationship of nation and freedom, of the church and the nation, justified the existence of the East Slavic Belarusian-Ukranian civilization and others. The book consists of thematic articles published by the author in the magazine “Culture, Nation” during the last three years (2013-2016, № 1-14; http://www.sakavik.net) and it is intended for readers who are interested in the construction of the Belarusian nation in the modern world.

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Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 14, June 2016

Piotra Murzionak: To Live Belarusian Nation

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2016, issue 14, pp. 521)  

The sovereign Belarusian state held and significantly strengthened over the past quarter of a century. However, the Belarusian statehood is threatened by Russia as not as a country with a huge military, economic and political potential, but as the country carrying Eurasism ideology, the ideology of the state preference and collectivist mentality over the individual, respect for strong authoritarian leaders. Another dangerous factor for the Belarusian nation is that Russia, having a multi-faceted cultural heritage and contemporary culture and using the Russian language as a tool, can absorb the culture of small countries, including the post – Soviet space countries. There are plenty of recent evidence that the ideological, imperial war against the Belarusian nationalism on the part of Russia carried out for a long time, and unfortunately, neglected or even with possible support by the Belarusian authorities. Unfortunately, an island of the former USSR with its ideology remained in Belarus where national issues are still not resolved. All this encourages Belarusians to look, justify and defend its own specific way for the preservation and development of the nation-state. This way is based on the differences between Russia and Belarus – Belarus in the course of the long history has gained a lot of signs of Western civilization. In addition, there is a significant ethnic, mental and historical difference between the East and the people of not a borderland between East and West, but independent peoples of Belarus and Ukraine, which together constitute the East Slavic Belarusian-Ukrainian civilization. Ukraine is now trying to escape through the war from political, economic and spiritual influence on the part of Russia. Belarus, having with Ukraine a very similar fate, will seek to protect itself from absorption by “Russian world” and has no choice but to look his own way. However, if these problems will not be solved themselves by Belarusians, no European Union or the United States will help. Everything is determined by the inner life of the nation, its spirit. Without denying its historic, cultural, and mental belonging to Europe, we advocate a neutral development of the Belarus, therefore, it appears neutrality-Europeanness must be at the center of the Belarusian specific way. Neutrality allows Belarus to get out of a “block” thinking by which she is now forced to be together with Russia (Union Treaty with a number of military duties, the Organization of States of Collective Security), and on the other hand it will not require a connection to other military alliances (NATO). Neutrality does not deny Europeanness of Belarusian nation and over time may correspond to the thoughts and sentiments of the majority of society and to meet the challenges of the global world. National elite is in a complex environment characterized by the need to address national and democratic issues simultaneously. Get out of the vicious circle will be possible with the strengthening of national forces and their unity in the performance of the overall strategy for the education of national consciousness among the population of Belarus. It is hoped that the development of the Belarusian nation in the global universe will be able in neutral environment while preserving and enriching the Belarusian culture and traditions.

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Summary of Discussion “The Nation Building and Modernity – 2015” (continuation). Updated version of “Strategy of Belarusian Nation Development” (on June 25, 2016).                                                                                                          

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2016, issue 14, pp.2233)

The project “The Strategy of Belarusian Nation Development” was published in our magazine on February 6, 2016. Now we provide the updated version of “Strategy” including comments and suggestions presented by web-site “Our Land” (“Nasha zjamlja”).

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On the 135th Anniversary of Ivan Lutskevich                                                   

(Abstractmagazine “CULTURENATION”, June 2016, issue 14pp. 34-37)

Editorial Board of the magazine “CULTURE, NATION” commemorates the 135-th day of birth of Ivan Lutskevich, the prominent Belarusian activist, one of the foundators of Belarusian nation.

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Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 13, March 2016

PDF-file, issue 13 (in Belarusian)

Alexander Kasho: Destruction of Authoritarianism – the Way of Salvation of Belarus (Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2016, issue 13, pp. 5-15)

The current crisis in Belarus is a natural result of the Lukashenka’s regime policy. Management system built on the ruins of the Soviet system can be divided into technical and authoritarian-ideological parts. The first part provides the functioning of the economic and social system, the second – strengthens and maintains the authoritarian regime. In a democracy, the authoritarian-ideological part of the establishment is not necessary as far as it inhibits the development of the country. It is hard to believe that current system in Belarus could be reformed and transformed into a democratic system by evolutionary way which will provide genuine democratic elections and establish a competitive market economy. The current economic crisis in Belarus threatens to further losses in the near future. Whoever offers external, cosmetic reforms of that system, both from the government side or from some opposition forces side, only postpones and delays the denouement. Authoritarian-ideological part of the current regime should be removed from power and that all will be better if it will pass without major revolutionary indignation. The question of lustration is discussed, especially the need to exclude the influence of the former nomenclature on the future government. The main role in the transformation process belongs to the national elite, intellectuals.

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Piotra Murzionak: About Strategy and Tactics of Belarusian Nation Building       (Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2016, issue 13, pp. 16-21)

The main objective in the development of the Belarusian nation is a public education – linguistic, historical, cultural. Public education is the process that can not be a short-term process, as it requires a lot of effort of all national-conscious united elites and it should be guided by the common strategy. The strategy, which is proposed to discuss to the Belarusian elite, contains a number of objectives, the implementation of which could be in its final form lead to success, regardless of the forces that will support them. Needless to hope on external forces such as a collapse of the Russia, European aid or a change of the ruling power during a possible coup, revolution or hungry rebellion. All of those scenarios are unlikely for various reasons. It seems that the disputes of the parties should be left for later, when the nation uprising would be in a full grandeur. Only education combined with the struggle for democratic freedoms can change the mentality of the Belarusians. At the same time, the goal of democratic freedoms can not substitute for the execution of those tasks that are necessary for the construction of the national state. Changes can come during the lifetime of one generation or the next only when systemic, coordinated work of the national elite will be performed. That work will undoubtedly lead to the main goal – we will have not a civil, Russian-speaking state, but the neutral, national country with a beautiful name – the Republic of Belarus.

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Vaclav Rudovsky: Nuclear Energy Today and Tomorrow
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2016, issue 13, pp. 22-26)

The data on nuclear energy development worldwide are presented. In the world there are about 440 commercial nuclear reactors, located in 31 countries. They produce about 11% of the world electrical energy. Nuclear power plants, compared with coal ones avoid to throw in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide; for the US it is about 750 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. It is predicted that 132 nuclear reactors will be shut down and 287 new nuclear reactors put into operation in the world by 2035. In Belarus in the coming years will be put into operation 2 nuclear reactors in Ostrovets.

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Summary of Discussion “The Nation Building and Modernity – 2015” (continuation).
The project “Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development”.                                     (Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2016, issue 13, pp. 27-65)

The project “The Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” was published in our magazine (February 6, 2016) , the newspaper ” Nasha Niva ” (February 7) , the newspaper “New Time”, on the websites of the World Association of Belarusians “Backaushchyna”, Belarusian Language Society, “We – The Nation”, “Pahonja” (Czech Republic), Belarus News. There were 55 comments in the newspaper “Nasha Niva”. The project was discussed by Polish Radio (February 27) and TV “Belsat” (March 12). Based on the published constructive comments and amendments made by the authors of the project, it was prepared the amended version of the project. We are grateful to Mr. Yakavenka and Mr. Kenka for comments made regarding a style and document language. In the “Discussion Section” the following materials were published: an amended version of the “Strategy” as of March 25, 2016, constructive comments posted on other web sites, comments on the issue of neutrality (A. Kasho), comments on the practical implementation of  the “Strategy” (V. Shyshko), article on the national question (A. Astapenka). Constructive comments relate to issues such as the attainment of status neutrality by the county, the mentality of the Belarusians, the role of the church \ religion in nation-building, and some other issues. Naturally, the magazine “CULTURE, NATION” is waiting for new comments, so that as much as possible to improve the “Strategy of Development of the Belarusian Nation” to a greater extent.
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Piotra Murzionak: Globalization versus Nation. Review for the assay “How to reach spirituality and harmony in society” written by Vasil Yakavenka.                                    (Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2016, issue 13, pp. 66-69)

V. Yakavenka using an integrated approach (theory, analysis of the European nations, the proposed project) discussed urgent problems of the existence of nations in the modern society which can be interesting to many readers. Source: “Як знайсці духоўнасць і гармонію ў грамадстве”. Васіль Якавенка. Мінск: Тэхналогія, 2015. 47с.

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Vaclau Lastouski: What Each Belarusian Has to Know?
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2016, issue 13, pp. 70-94)                          (translation from Belatusian into Russian by Piotra Murzionak)

The editorial board has decided to translate into Russian the entire well-known article of Vaclau Lastouski “What each Belarusian has to know?” Why into Russian? The Belarusian language is the primary language of the magazine “CULTURE, NATION”. However, materials can be published in any language, if the subject matter is directly attributable to the magazine’s main objectives (with mandatory summary in the native language). Yet the decision of translating Lastouski’s article into Russian was sad necessity measure. First of all, people who read, become ever less. Secondly, one would think that people shouldn’t need the translation to read in their native tongue. But unfortunately the reality is that Belarusians read primarily in Russian and mainly Russian literature (85% of books on the publishing market in Belarus are printed not in the native language but in Russian). The reasoning of the editorial board for translating this article into Russian is as follows: even if one person is interested in reading this article in Russian, it is necessary, due to the importance of the content, to provide a translation. Many Lastouski’s ideas reflected in this article that was published almost a hundred years ago are still relevant for Belarusians today. We should strongly encourage everyone who considers him or herself Belarusians (considers not only for the purposes of filling in official papers or claiming citizenship and belonging to the country’s territory, but truly by devotion), to behave like Belarusians.

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On the 80th Anniversary of Ivonka Survilla

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2016, issue 13, p. 95-96)

Editorial Board of the magazine “CULTURE, NATION” congratulates with 80th anniversary Mrs. Ivonka Survilla, The President of the Belarusian People Republic and wishes her to be healthy, happy and every success working for the benefit of the Belarusian people.

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