The authors present the history of Belarus from the earliest times to 1991, when an independent Belarusian state appeared on the world map. The aim of publication is to familiarize the Polish reader with the history of Belarusian lands in the political, ethnic, cultural and economic aspect. The authors also paid attention to the contentious issues which arouse continued interest in Poland and in Belarus. The novelty of this publication lies in its design. In presenting historical events, the authors departed from the traditional chronological system, which is the most common in literature on the subject. Being aware of the complexity of the issues raised in the work, they decided to use a factual (problematic) system that allows for a more detailed presentation of the facts and their analysis. The monograph is addressed both to representatives of the academic community and to anyone interested in the history of our eastern neighbor.