ABSTRACTS, 2017, #17-20

whole issue #20 

Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 20, December 2017

Editorial

Piotra Murzionak: The magazine “Culture. Nation” is 5 years old.

(magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.58)

Dear readers!

The editorial board of web-magazine “Culture. Nation” sincerely wishes you Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

We wish you and your families happiness, health, prosperity, and good mood!

Let this year will be successful, calm and dignified!

Our magazine is 5 years old. Yes, it was founded in December 2012 and it has since come out regularly, every three months, 4 issues per year. Now you are holding in your hands the 20th issue of the magazine. Over the past five years, the magazine published the original materials of 29 authors. In total, 119 original articles were published. The total volume of the magazine was about 1,400 pages, i.e., on average, each issue includes about 70 pages.

The magazine “Culture. Nation” is located on our website www.sakavik.net, where during five years we have placed 936 materials from other sites, magazines and newspapers. Currently, in the extremely informative time you may find quite a lot of Belarusian sites. Nevertheless, we believe that we also find an information space and our own audience. In less than five years, our website and magazine were visited by more than 16,600 readers (with more than 30,700 views). We are proud to say – most readers come from Belarus (56.2%).

Traditionally, the magazine includes “the Strategy of Development of the Belarusian Nation” and begins with it. As we already reported, at the 7th Congress of Belarusians of the World, organized by the Association of Belarusians of the World “Batskaushchyna” (Minsk, July 15-16, 2017), the text of the “Strategy” has been circulated to the delegates of the Congress; in the final general resolution the Congress urged the Belarusian authorities to take into account the decisions made “for the development of the state’s national development strategy and the strengthening of independence in terms of changed geopolitical challenges.”

At the recent congress of the Belarusian Language Society (TBM) at the end of October 2017, the texts of the “Strategy” were distributed to the delegates and also transferred to the district organizations of the TBM. As always, we invite our readers to send their comments and suggestions to improve the content of the “Strategy” at: chasopis.sakavik@hotmail.com . Editors ask organizations, who basically agree with the provisions of the Strategy, to join the implementation of its tasks.

 Me, editor, wrote two articles. One of them concerns the further development of the theme of the Belarusian-Ukrainian or Western-Ruthen civilization, and the second one tells the story of a conscious revolt for an independent Belarus (Slutsk defence action).

As always we are very pleased with the materials provided by Siargey Paniznik. This time, he sent an article “See into the sun’ eyes” dedicated to the 135th anniversary of our poets Yanka Kupala and Yakub Kolas, a reflection of cultural events related to their names which took place in Latvia in the interwar period. A significant role in the organization of these events played schools and institutions that were created and patronized by the Belarusian statesman Kanstantin Ezavitau and by other conscious Belarusians who lived at that time in Latvia. Believe it! The support from Latvia at that time for Belaruskasc was quite as important as the support from abroad now!

I have got the pleasant news from my small homeland, from Jazep Kwach. Recently, he published three books, “Padzisnenskiya couplets (prypeuki)”, “I love you”, and Kwachy Kwachami”. We include the author’ forewords to these books in the 20th issue. We publish the texts of those books as well at our website www.sakavik.net in the “Literature” section. I believe that those publications will not leave you without any emotions.

At the conclusion, we publish a letter to the members of the Belarusian Institute of Science and Arts in Canada (BINIM), in which Dr. P. Murzionak, the President of the Institute, presents his vision of BINIM prospects for the near future; we also give a statistical information about Belarusians in Canada, based on the last Census-2016, and the summary of the conferences, seminars, symposia, held in Ottawa in October-November 2017.

At the end of the magazine the most important calendar dates for 2017 are placed.

Wishing you pleasant reading.

The magazine Founder and Editor,

Piotra Murzionak

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Discussion “The Nation Building and Modernity – 2015-2017”

“Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development”(updated up to December 15, 2017).

(“CULTURE. NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, pp.9-13; www.sakavik.net )

“The Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” was firstly published in the magazine “CULTURE, NATION” in March 2016 (issue 13, pp. 27-34). In every issue of the magazine we provide updated version of “The Strategy”. The aim of “the Strategy” is to build a neutral, national state in which absolutely equal rights will have representatives of national minorities and representatives of predominant ethnicity – Belarusians. The Strategy includes tasks, approaches and resources to realize the national idea. We are grateful to all people participating in the discussion. Naturally, the magazine is waiting for new comments, so that as much as possible to improve “the Strategy”. The text of “the Strategy” was distributed among the delegates of the 7th Congress of Belarusians of the World (July 15-16, 2017; Minsk), and the delegates of the 13th Congress of Association of Belarusian Language (TBM, October 27, 2017; Minsk).

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Piotra Murzionak: Western-Ruthen Civilization is a Part of Western Civilization

(Abstract, magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.14-24)

The author continues to provide an evidence for the existence of a distinct Belarusian-Ukrainian or Western-Ruthen civilization. Belarus and Ukraine as a sub-civilization belongs to the Western, but not to the Eurasian civilization. A number of arguments support this statement based on historical, ethnic, religion, mentality aspects, and commonality with Western civilization.

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Piotra Murzionak: Conscious uprising for an independent Belarus

(Abstract, magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.25-38)

The Slutsk defence action/uprising occurred at the end of 1920 during the Polish-Soviet war. During the uprising the fighting between the Belarusian forces committed to the Belarusian People Republic (BNR) and the Red Army passed between November 27 and December 31, 1920. Military and political conditions around the Slutsk uprising, parrticipants, and military actions are described. The list of uprising participants is ammended. On November 27, Belarusians of the world are celebrating the Day of Heroes.

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Siargey Paniznik: See into the Eyes of the Sun

(Abstract, magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.39-50)

The written by S. Paniznik introduces us into the period between two world wars and places us into the Latvia. It is remarkable that at that time the Belarusian cultural life existed in this country despite the total difference between the free and the slave worlds. It was possible thanks to many real and sincere Belarusians such as K. Ezavitau, S. Sacharau, and others, who could support the Belarusian soul abroad. Imagine, in 20-40th of the last century you may visit performances of Belarusians artists in Latvia, celebrate the important events including those inspired by our famous national leaders and poets, J. Kupala and J. Kolas. The article is ammended by photos from the author archive.

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Piotra Murzionak: Still living the Belarusian village. Comments on the books of Jazep Kwach

(Abstract, magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.51-60)

My comments are about my compatriot and a very sincere person as this feeling, sincerity, came from his letters, and it is even more intensified when I learned from Mr. Jazep Kwach’ books recently published. Those books are: “Prydzisnenskia prypeuki” (folklor songs), “I love you” (poems), and “Kwachy Kwachamy” (memoires). His books are about the small homeland, a small, but our favorite part of the lovely and beautiful Belarus. It should be noted that all three books by Yazep Kwach were published with the support of Glybokaie organization of the Belarusian Language Society (TBM). This is a very good sign that the Belarusian grassroutes are still there that there are people who speak and think in Belarusian, and thereby give up hope that the Belarusian character will exist not only in rural areas but also in all Belarusian region.

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Letter by Piotra Murzionak, the President of the Belarusian Institute of Arts and Sciences in Canada (BINIM), to the members of the Institute                       

(Abstract, magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.61-66)

Dear friends of BINIM!

First than to present my vision of the Institute’  activities in the near future, I want to congratulate you and your families with the upcoming New Year holidays and wish you happiness, health and success!

In 2017, the Institute was filled with significant events. It included a significant expansion of the circle of friends of the Institute, now we have 28 members, the celebration of the 50th anniversary of BINIM, which was held concurrently with the General meeting of the Institute (September 2, 2017, Toronto), and our participation in the work of the Canadian Congress of Humanities and Social Studies (May 27-29, 2017, Ryerson University, Toronto).

Saying about the most important things in the Insitute’ life I would like to concentrate your attention to the words “charity, sacrifice, and enthusiasm” as they are the foundation of the Institute. I believe that the feeling of being close working with creative, and sacrifieced people must multiply our internal forces. Working together, individually and in groups, we can embrace much more within the Institute. It seems that we should be grateful to each other for support in an effort to create and support the Belarusian culture and science here in Canada, far from our homeland. Regarding our financial resources, however, we know that the membership dues may not be enough, if the project to be supported is serious. Traditionally, everyone knows that money can be obtained from sponsors, patrons, provincial and federal agencies. I will not discover “america” – we need to do it as well.

The proposed action in the near future are: to collect membership fees for 2017 and possibly for 2018, to prepare BINIM Charter in the Belarusian Latin alphabet (first half of 2018), to create a gallery of members of the Institute (with their consent) with pictures and brief information about the most important creative achievements and plans on our website (first half 2018), to popularize our Institute activities.

That are, briefly, my first thoughts about the immediate prospects of BINIM. I could not relate to the plans of each of the BINIM member, however, I think, you will willingly share about all your activities on the web site of the Institute (the 100th anniversary of the BNR, concerts, festivals, exhibitions, presentations, academic conferences).

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Piotra Murzionak: Update on migration of Belarusians to Canada (Census – 2016)

 (magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.67-74)

  1. The number of Belarusians in Canada increased by 5,145 persons from 15.565 in 2011 to 20.710 in 2016.
  2. 185 people or 93% of the total number of Belarusians in Canada live in four Canadian provinces in 2016: Ontario (11,690; 56%), British Columbia (2,765), Quebec (2,530) and Alberta (2,200). As in 2011, 40% of Belarusians are living in Toronto (6,215 persons, it was 8.240 persons).
  3. During the period from 2011 to 2016, a significant proportion of Belarusians migrated from the second country (when comparing the number of migrants to the specified place of birth).
  4. Migration potential of Belarusians in comparison with the neighboring countries is low. On average, each year in the period between 1991-2011 and 2011-2016, respectively, 7 and 11 Belarusians migrated to Canada (+ 57%, the calculation is made per 100.000 population of Belarus). During the same periods, the migration of Estonians to Canada rose from 7 to 21 per 100 thousand population of Estonia (3-fold), Latvians – from 17 to 32 (+ 88%), Ukrainians – from 22 to 48 (2.2-fold, + 118%), Lithuanians – from 28 to 68 people (2.4-fold, + 143%), Polish – from 35 to 50 (1.4-fold, +43%).
  5. The proportion of Belarusians in Canada who use their native language at home is very small (2.8%, the Census-2011 – 3.9%). For the Belarusian language, these figures are critical for maintaining it, and reflect the situation with the language at home. For comparison: the percentage of Ukrainians who use their native language at home is 5.1% (was 9.6%), Lithuanians – 8.2% (15.5%), Poles – 14.4% (19.9%), Latvians – 11.3% (23.6%), Russians – 31.2% (30.9%).

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Brief notes from conferences by Piotra Murzionak (October-November 2017)

(magazine“CULTURE, NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.75-79)

On October 11, 2017, the University of Ottawa hosted a lecture by Nicholas Rabchuk known Ukrainian intellectual and journalist, the President of the Ukrainian PEN Center. The main conclusion of the lecture was that Ukrainian mentality \ consciousness gradually strengthened in all regions of Ukraine.

On October 27-28, 2017, the Institute of Oscar Halecki (Polish scientific institutions in Canada) held the 2nd Symposium on “Contribution of Canadians of Polish origin to the development of Canada”. In the plenary lecture A. Jablonski characterized five waves of Poles emigration in Canada (1870-1914, 1918-1939, 1939-1956, 1956-1981, 1981-2000). It is interesting that 38 million of Poles live in homeland and 14.5 million – abroad, of them in the United States – 10.6, Brazil – 1.8, Canada – 1.1. Lecturer recalled famous people such as Danuta Mostwin (1921-2000), Wsevolod Jakimiuk (1902-1991). Wsevolod Yakimyuk had Belarusian roots, he was the author of dozens of projects of different aircrafts as he was working at the De Havilland Canada. A. Jablonski cited some statistics that less than 2% of Canadian Poles participate in the affairs of public organizations and the proportion of Poles who speak their native language at home in Canada is reduced.

On November 16-18, 2017, Danyliw annual seminar on the problems of modern Ukraine was held at the University of Ottawa. Saturday was completely given over to the theme “Art and Politics”. The day began with a lecture of M. Sonevitski on the development of Ukrainian pop-singer Ruslana. In 2004, Ruslana won “Eurovision Song Contest”. The author drew a parallel between the musical creativity of Ruslana and her civil position. Her work has evolved from the musical nationalism, auto-lexicon to sovereignty policy. It was very interesting presentation of new book by Mayhill Fowler “Beau Monde on Empire’s Edge: State and Stage in Soviet Ukraine” (University of Toronto Press, 2017). The author uses an original approach – compares the life and work of pairs of writers or actors who in the interwar time left Ukraine and went to Moscow, and those who remained in Kiev, for example, Ostap Vyshnia – Ilf-Petrov, Kurbas – Mihoels. It was considered the work of the people in “the center” and “periphery”, the languages used, ​​the “permitted” and the real national culture, how dare in such different conditions the national identity was. Much of what she writes has been characteristic for the development of creativity of the Belarusian culture in the Soviet times.

The lecture by Anne Kutkina (the University of Helsinki) considered the destruction of the communist time monument in Ukraine (“Leninapad”). Process of monument destroing had several periods – ranging from vandalism to the official removal of monuments on the decision of the Ukrainian government. In Ukraine, there were about 5,500 monuments to Lenin, who were as a sign of the presence of Soviet power, especially in western Ukraine. The questions of monument destruction are not so simple.

People’s thoughts on this matter are separated from “you are destroying our past” to “Glory to Ukraine” as a protest against the past. Negative point is the fact that the destroyed monuments have architectural and artistic values, and also the fact is that after the monuments cleaned, the pedestals remain as a reminder that there is something to think about. Now in Ukraine destroyed almost all Lenin monuments and to other communist activists. As an example of a different approach, Lithuania is leading, where such monuments were moved to specially designed parks.

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Calendar of important events in the life of the Belarusians in 2017

(“CULTURE. NATION”, December 2017, issue 20, p.80-82; www.sakavik.net)

1155 years of Polotsk (in 862 mentioned in the “Chronicle of Bygone Years”)

950 years of Minsk (in 1067 mentioned in the “Chronicle of Bygone Years”)

655 years ago, in 1362, troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by Alherd defeated the combined forces of the Golden Horde on the river Blue Water

500 anniversary of Belarusian book printing – in 1517 Frantsisk Skaryna printed the first Belarusian-language book “Psaltyr”

490 years since the birth of Konstantin V. Astrorzsky  (1527-1608)

400 years since the founding of gymnasium in Slutsk (1617), one of the oldest secondary schools in Belarus (from 1788 public evangelical school, a school district in 1809, in 1827 high school, in 1868 – 1918 Classical Gymnasium)

375 years since the birth of Abukhovich Theodore (1642 – 1707), writer, memoirist, a statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

255 years ago ballet school was founded in Grodno ((1762, it existed until 1785)

165 years ago, in 1852, theater placed in Minsk the first Belarusian opera “The Maid” (“Idyll”) (music by S. Manyushka, K. Kryzhanouskaga, libretto by V. Dunin-Marcinkevich)

155 years since the publication (1862) of Belarusian primer (ABC) published in Warsaw by A.U.Askerka

135 years since the birth of the great poets of the Belarusian people, the classics of the national literature – Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas110 years ago (1907) in Vilnius publishing house “Nasha Niva” was established (existed till 1914)

110 years ago (1907) the first Belarusian theater troupe I. Bujnitskaga was created

100 years from the 1st ​​All-Belarusian Congress (December 1917)

Sources for calendar: http://moiro.by/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=1935&Itemid=14&lang=be

https://biblioshtuchki.jimdo.com

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Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 19, September 2017

PDF-file of 19th issue of magazine “Culture. Nation”, September 2017, 75 pp.

Editorial

Piotra Murzionak19th issue of the magazine “Сulture. Nation”, September 2017

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.7-8; www.sakavik.net)

Dear readers!

This year is special for Belarus – 500th  anniversary of Belarusian book-printing. In 1517, in Prague, Francishak Skaryna for the first time published a book in the old Belarusian language. 19th issue of the magazine is devoted to this distinctive for the Belarusian nation date. The issue includes materials that are directly attributable to a very important anniversary in the history of Belarus and other traditional articles. On Skaryna topic you may find the essay “Francishak Skaryna – the Person of Belarus European” by Piotra Murzionak, as well as poems and photos sent by Siargei Paniznik in the definition of glorious anniversary. The 19th issue includes by magazine tradition “Strategy of the Development of the Belarusian nation” and begins with it. “Strategy” is gradually supplemented by Belarusians. We invite readers to send their comments and suggestions to improve the content of the “Strategy” at: chasopis.sakavik@hotmail.com. Editors ask organizations who basically agree with the provisions of the Strategy to join the implementation of its tasks. This time we have got some feedback from the delegates of the 7th Congress of Belarusians of the World, organized by the Association of Belarusians of the World “Batskaushchyna” (Minsk, 15-16 July 2017). The text of the “Strategy” has been circulated at the Congress among 228 delegates, including 115 delegates from 20 foreign countries. The final overall resolution of the Congress calls on the Belarusian authorities to “take into account all of the above (for details see the joint resolution of the Congress) in the development of the State’s National Development Strategy and strengthening the independence in a changing of geopolitical challenges.” The editors found as need to represent a summary of the Congress, as well as the full text of the overall resolution. Other Congress materials can be found on the website: www.zbsb.org

The 7th Congress of Belarusians of the World was attended by Valentina and Yuri Shauchenka, two delegates from the Belarusian-Canadian Alliance. The magazine publishes the article, written on our request by Valentina Shauchenka, as well as her interview given to “Radio Ratsyia” about her emotions and impressions of the Congress.

In “Poetry” section you may find poems by Siargei Paniznik and Sviatlana Kabanova. The magazine publishes express-interview taken during the 7th Congress by Valentina Shauchenka with Aksana Kolb, editor of the newspaper “Novy Chas”.  Aleg Rudakou, the tireless and long-time head of the Belarusian Association in Irkutsk, sent us the community information, the announcement of the celebration of the Belarusian “Dazhynki”, there, far away in Russia, and a short article by journalist Olga Lipchinsky how this feast was held. The editors decided to submit these materials to the 19th  issue – wherever Belarusians lived among them there will always be people who, far from home, drop by drop support the spirit of the Belarusian people. In the end of the issue, the most important Belarusian calendar dates of this year are presented.

Wishing you pleasant reading.

The magazine Founder and Editor,

Piotra Murzionak

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Discussion “The Nation Building and Modernity – 2015-2017”

“Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” (updated up to September 30, 2017)

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.9-13www.sakavik.net)

“The Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” was firstly published in the magazine “CULTURE. NATION” in March 2016 (issue 13, pp. 27-34). In every issue of the magazine we provide updated version of “The Strategy”. The aim of “the Strategy” is to build a neutral, national state in which absolutely equal rights will have representatives of national minorities and representatives of predominant ethnicity – Belarusians. The Strategy includes tasks, approaches and resources to realize the national idea. We are grateful to all people participating in the discussion. Naturally, the magazine is waiting for new comments, so that as much as possible to improve “the Strategy”.

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Information about 7th Congress of Belarusians of the World and the General Resolution of Congress (July 15-16, 2017; Minsk)

(“CULTURE.NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.1417; www.sakavik.net)

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Valentina Shauchenka: My Impressions on Homeland (7th Congress of Belarusians in Minsk, July 15-16, 2017)

(“CULTURE.NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.18-27; www.sakavik.net)

The 7th Congress of Belarusians of the World was attended by Valentina and Yuri Shauchenka, two delegates from the Belarusian-Canadian Alliance, Canada. The magazine publishes the article, written on our request by Valentina Shauchenka, as well as her interview given to “Radio Ratsyia” about her emotions and impressions of the Congress.

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Piotra Murzonak: Francishak Skaryna – the Person of Belarus European (assay)

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.2837www.sakavik.net)

Five centuries have passed since that time, when Francishak, son of Luka Skaryna from Polatsk, printed the first Belarusian book in Prague. Honor for Belarusians to have in their inheritance of such a giant and educator, pioneer and innovator, which is in the Belarusian and East European History Francishak Skaryna. His figure is so high that we can not take offense when a piece of his fame want to borrow our neighbors, however, its very life and the fulfillment of the basic undoubtedly belong to Belarus. Retrospective analysis of the era in which our countryman lived and worked claims, in terms of current understanding of the nation and the nation-state, that F. Skaryna and identified himself as Belarusian. Yes, in those days he could be Litvin and Ruthen and Russian, but today he is for us the Belarusian and the Belarusian of the European value. His europeaness contributes to the gradual return of our country to Europe, even that do not like those statesmen and scholars looking at the Eurasian side.

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Siargei Paniznik: To Skaryna’s anniversary

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.38-51www.sakavik.net)

To the 500th  anniversary of publishing of the first Belarusian books by famous Enlightener, S. Paniznik provided original images of Skaryna’ portraits, images made in the department of Belarusian early prints, created in Lviv by Ilarion Svjancicky, and a few well-groomed poems about Skaryna.

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Sviatlana Kabanava: Poems

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.52-65www.sakavik.net)

Svetlana Kabanova, scientist (PhD in Biology), poet, translator, and popularizer of science. Since 1996 she has been living in Düsseldorf (Germany). She is the winner of the award of the magazine “Literary European” (Frankfurt, Germany, 2004), the winner of the international art contest “Pushkin for children” (nomination “Poetry”, “German-Russian Festival”, 2012, Berlin, Germany).

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Valiantsina Chauchenka: Express interview with Oksana Kolb, chief editor of “Novy Chas”

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.6668; www.sakavik.net)

Express interview with Aksana Kolb, chief editor of “Novy Chas” newspaper, was taken by Valiantsina Shauchenka for the magazine “Culture. Nation” during the 7th World Congress of Belarusians (Minsk, 15-16 July 2017).

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Aleg Rudakou: Celebration of the Belarusian “Dazhynki” in Irkutsk

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.6972www.sakavik.net)

 Aleg Rudakou, the tireless and long-time head of the Belarusian Association in Irkutsk, sent us the community information, the announcement of the celebration of the Belarusian “Dazhynki”, there, far away in Russia, and a short article by journalist Olga Lipchinsky how this feast was held. Wherever Belarusians lived among them, there will always be people who are far from home, drop by drop support the spirit of the Belarusian people.

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Calendar of important events in the life of the Belarusians in 2017

(“CULTURE. NATION”, September 2017, issue 19, p.72-75; www.sakavik.net)

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Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 18, June 2017

Editorial to the 18th issue of magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, pp. 5-11,

by Piotra Murzionak

Dear readers!

After March 25, 2017 un-freedom atmosphere for the Belarusian nation considerably thickened. Brutal arrests of participants, who were going on a celebration of Independence Day, it’s not finished. About 30 people were arrested in the so-called case of the “White Legion”. It is obvious that at homeland the last Belarusian will is squeezed by oriental and other aliens with gradual including of Belarus into the “russian world”.

It seems that many people in the anti-national government protect the position of those who share views and interests of Transnistria, the Penza province, and “our Crimea/ Krym nash” but not the interests of Belarus. In Minsk a monument of faceless policeman from Imperial Russia times was settled, near Brest landed Russian paratroopers, who with Belarusian military and for some reason with the Serbs are trying to fight with conventional terrorists, Foreign Minister of Russia S. Lavrov said in Moscow in the beginning of June 2017 about the introduction of common visa on the territory of Belarus and Russia, ahead are expected large military maneuvers of Russian troops on the territory of Belarus. Under the influence of Moscow and local advocacy for more than 60% of the population of Belarus, according to the laboratory Vardamatski, inclined towards an alliance with Russia … The list can be extended. However, it will testify only about the gradual involvement of Belarus as a totally dependent colony to Russia.

Gradual surrender of national interests pursued by the past 20 years threatens the sovereignty and independence of Belarus. The rhetoric that can be heard from the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Makej, about balancing of foreign policy, while recognizing the priority of Russia, one should not be misled. It seems that the only way for the authoritarian leadership to save power may be holding a constitutional referendum on the recognition of Belarus as a neutral state. Conducting of such a referendum is certainly not advisable to have survived the authoritarian regime – a positive vote on this referendum leaves the moral rights for Belarusians and a chance to build a neutral, national state. Belarusians need to make every effort so that in such difficult conditions to preserve national identity and take its rightful and distinctive place in the world.

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The 18th issue of the magazine begins with the “Strategy of Development of the Belarusian Nation”. “Strategy” is gradually supplemented by suggestions of Belarusians. We invite readers to send their comments and suggestions to improve the content of the “Strategy” at: chasopis.sakavik@hotmail.com  Editorial Board asks organizations who basically agree with the provisions of the Strategy to join the implementation of its tasks.

Editorial Board drew attention to a survey on the neutrality of Belarus, which is located on our website http://www.sakavik.net  in the classified section. The neutrality of Belarus is one of the defining moments of discussion of the “Strategy”. We would be grateful if you could find a few minutes to express your attitude to the possibility of a neutral state of Belarus.

This year is the special year for Belarus by 500th anniversary of book-printing – Frantsysk Skaryna for the first time published a book in the Old Belarusian language in Prague in 1517. We plan to put the materials devoted to this aspect of the Belarusian nation life in this September issue of the magazine “Culture, Nation”.

On 15-16 July 2017 Minsk will host the Seventh Congress of Belarusians of the World. The magazine “Culture Nation” warmly welcomes the participants of the World Forum, wishes them the fruitful work and expresses a confidence that the decisions taken at the Congress, will greatly contribute to the further development of Belarusian national state.

The original materials of the magazine introduces the section “Regional studies”, which was organized thanks to researchers of Pastavy region (Vitebsk province), Mr. I. Prakapovich and Mr. V. Shyshko. The editors are very grateful for their participation in the work of the magazine. We believe that readers with interest acquainted with the Prakapovich’ hypothesis on the origin of the name of Myadzel village, as well as the views of Mr. Shyszko on the role of local history in the formation of national identity in the globalization era. This section also provides information on the status of schools and education in Pastavy region after World War II presented by I. Prakapovich.

In the section “Conferences”, materials submitted by the members of the Belarusian Institute of Science and Arts in Canada (BINIM) at the Annual Congress of the Federation of Humanities and Social Sciences in Canada, which took place on May 27 – June 2, 2017 in Toronto, are published. All reports made by friends of BINIM in English or Belarusian language directly related to the issues of life of the Belarusian nation. Among them, characterization of the state of Protestantism in Belarus (Yu. Rapetski), understanding of the Belarusian identity among diaspora (M.-P. Survila), the current knowledge of the relationship of globalization and national identity from a historical point of view taking into account the “borderline status” of the Belarusian state and the oppressed status of the Belarusian language (G. Tumilovich), the analysis of the book by R. Borodulin “If only Jews were here! The book of respect and friendship” dedicated to a centuries charity between Christians and Jewish Belarusians (Z. Gimpelevich), the analysis of magazine activity “Culture, Nation ” in 2012-2017 (N. Barkar), determination of the place in the classification of civilizations for the East Slavic, Belarusian-Ukrainian civilization as sub-civilization of  Western civilization (P. Murzionak).

For the first time the magazine opens the section “Literature”, which placed a poem and short story of I. Prokopovich. The editorial board will welcome contributions from other authors from Belarus in this section. For information, the Belarusian authors in diaspora have the opportunity to publish their works, poems and prose, in the Almanakh “Belarus” which is published in New York City (editor M. Klakotsky).

The “Interview” section of magazine “Culture Nation” contains the full text of the interview Yu. Rapetski, which he gave to the magazine “The Source of Life”, where it will be published in an abbreviated form.

The editorial board of “Culture, Nation” congratulates his colleague, Mr. S. Paniznik, with 75-year anniversary and wished him good health and further fruitful work for the good of our country. In the same section “Anniversaries” we publish a selection of materials prepared by Mr. S. Paniznik dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Nina Debolskaja known translator of poems of Belarusian poets.

At the end of the magazine the most important calendar dates this year are placed.

Wishing you pleasant reading.

The magazine’s founder and editor,

Piotra Murzionak

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Discussion “The Nation Building and Modernity – 2015-2017”

“Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” (updated up to June 20, 2017).

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp. 12-16)

“The Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” was firstly published in the magazine “CULTURE, NATION” in March 2016 (issue 13, pp. 27-34). In every issue of the magazine we provide now updated versions of “The Strategy”. The aim of “the Strategy” is to build a neutral, national state in which absolutely equal rights will have representatives of national minorities and representatives of predominant ethnicity – Belarusians. The Strategy includes tasks, approaches and resources to realize the national idea. We are grateful to all people participating in the discussion. Naturally, the magazine is waiting for new comments, so that as much as possible to improve “the Strategy”.

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Igor Prakapovich: Mjadzel – a new version of the name origin
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.17-25)

The article deals with new original hypothesis of geographical names formation in the territory of the north-western Belarus and eastern Lithuania with the basics of “copper/medz”, “mjad-” (Mjadzel, Mjadzelka and the like). The author connects their origin to the name of the people “honeys/medy”, which in the days of Aleksandr Makedonski lived in the valleys of the rivers Struma and Strumnitsy in the south-western part of present-day Bulgaria. To escape from the pressure of more powerful neighbors, the people “medy” (or part thereof) moved into the territory of modern Belarus. As evidence the author presents historical facts and clear toponymic parallels that create a fertile ground for further research in line with the selected hypothesis.

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Vadim Szyszko: Interdependence of the Existence of the Belarusian Culture and National Identity. The Role of Local History in their Formation

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.26-32)

The article deals with the danger of cultural unification posed by globalization. It is emphazised the importance for all humankind of preserving cultural diversity in general and, therefore, the Belarusian culture in particular. The analysis of the current state of the Belarusian culture and especially of the Belarusian language is conducted. It is demonstrated the interrelationship between the Belarusian culture and national identity. It is shown the history of development of the Belarusian national identity and its state today. On the basis of practical experience the author offers a method of raising of national consciousness among students in schools with the help of local history teaching.

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Igar Prakapovich: Schools and education in Pastavy region after World War II
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.33-34)

The information on the status of schools and education in Pastavy region after World War II is presented.

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BINIM participates in the Congress of the Canadian Federation for Humanities and Social Sciences (by P. Murzionak)

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.35-37)

From May 27 to June 2, 2017 in Toronto (Ontario), the 86th Congress of the Canadian Federation for Humanities and Social Sciences was held. By tradition, the Congress was attended by members of the Belarusian Institute of Science and Arts in Canada (BINIM) who are a part of the Canadian Association of Slavists (CAS). On the first day, May 27, 2017, three sessions were held at the meeting with 15 thematic sections, three of which have been completely Belarusians. In the morning and evening sessions were delivered by three scientific reports directly related to the life of the Belarusian nation. At the end of the day BINIM members held a round table with the Belarusian-Canadian poets.

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George Repetski: Protestantism on Belarusian Soil                    

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.38-44)

Protestantism was introduced in Belarus almost 600 years ago in the face of Jerome of Prague. Almost 100 years later, the disciples of Jean Kalvin visited Belarus and with the help of well-known families of the Belarusian nobility began to spread Protestant ideas and teachings. Protestant communities were organized which built houses of worship in many places of Belarus. This all happened within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL), which contributed to the religious tolerance and to the impact on the political and economic development of the GDL. Influenced by the Counter-Reformation, many of the Belarusian nobility over time moved to Catholicism, especially when creating the Commonwealth, when united in one two states of the Poland and the GDL. Protestants for a second time appeared in the Belarusian lands in the nineteenth century, and they came from different sources. When the Soviet Union, most Protestants were severely repressed and only on the decay of the state they have received full authorization for the existence and activities of today’s Belarus.

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M. Paula Survilla: The Persistence of Memory and Formation of Identity – Migration and the Homeland in Belarusian Experience

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.45-54)

Understanding of the Belarusian identity among Diaspora is discussed.

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Galina Tumilovich: Belarus from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to globalization: what heritage shall we take with us?

Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp. 55-64)

Keywords: globalization, identity, nation, Belarusianness, border, debelarusification, bilingualism.

In the international discourse on the basic problems of the contemporary world the most frequently used terms currently are “globalization” and “identity.” This approach is by no means lacking in basis, since it touches in one way or another all contemporary state structures. For the researcher of the case of Belarus it has a special content because it brings to the surface the problem of the definition of Belarusian national identity and its special characteristics both in a historical perspective, and from the point of view of its contemporary situation. Here in turn the geographical and geopolitical factors come to the forefront, since Belarus is a classical example of a “border state.” A second predominant factor that greatly defines the uniqueness of the Belarusian case is the situation and role of the Belarusian language. Our analysis of the example of Belarus will seek to focus precisely on this issue.

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Zina Gimpelevich: Ryhor Baradulin (1935-2014). If only Jews were here! The book of respect and friendship

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp. 65-76)

Vasil Bykov thought of his younger friend Gregory Baradulin the best Belarusian poet of all time. In fact, fellows enjoyed his comic poem no less than “serious, the biblical theme” as well as gratefulness for Baradulin for the development of modern literature critical thoughts, prose, journalism and translation. His legacy to our people: more than 70 books. G. Baradulin was twice nominated as a candidate for the Nobel literature prize. I’m sure only that there is no other than translations of his works into Western languages ​​prevented to get her it. At the same time, he was a talented translator proved not only world-class translations from more than a dozen languages, but his latest book: “To the Jews were only! Book of respect and friendship”.  In this book, which has no analogue in world literature, Baradulin tells about a centuries charity between Christians and Jewish Belarusians, wrote many poems dedicated to God, and 12 essays about Jewish representatives of Belarusian culture. But most importantly, he translated from Belarusian Yiddish (languages ​​Litvak) many beautiful poems, which we never would have known if not of work our poet patriot and man.

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Natalia Barkar: The web-magazine “CULTURE, NATION” Activity in 2012-2017

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.77-81)

The web-magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, ISSN 2291-4757, was founded in Ottawa, Canada in December 2012 as an independent on-line periodical intended to provide another platform to discuss Belarusian history and culture, and to support the development of Belaruskasć (Belarusian heritage and identity). The magazine “CULTURE, NATION” is published once in three months. The web-magazine is the organic part of web-site http://www.sakavik.net. Along with magazine articles the most interesting materials from other sources related to the Belarusian culture are presented on the web-site. Editorial Board of magazine: Editor and Founder – Piotra Murzionak, Board members:  Natalia Barkar, Wolga Ipatava, Viktoryja Kazlova, Sjarhei Paniznik, Halina Tumilovich.

Altogether, during 4 years and 3 months about 800 hundreds posts were published on the web-site on the following topics: Advertisements, Personals, Enlightment/Education, Magazine’s Library, History, External affairs, Culture, Literature, Morality, Language, Nation, Belarusians, project “Together” (“РАЗАМ”), Religion, Editorial, Theatre, Ethnocide of Belarusians. Almost 15 thousands visitors from 109 countries have read its materials (mean average about 3600 visitors per year). We are proud that more than 56% of our readers originate from our homeland, Belarus. Then follow Canada with 13.3%, Russia – 6.7%, USA – 6.5%).

During 2013-2017, seventeen (17) issues of the magazine were published involving twenty three (23) authors and eighty four (84) articles.  The first issue was published on March 14, 2013. The issues ##1-6 were published under the title “SAKAVIK” then starting from #7 the title of magazine was changed by decision of Editorial Board to “Culture, Nation”. The magazine “CULTURE, NATION” highlighted the problems of the development of the Belarusian nation related to the theoretical foundations of the construction of the Belarusian state; the development strategy of the Belarusian nation; the mentality of the Belarusians; interrelationship between nation and freedom as well as nation and church; existence of the East Slavic (Belarusian-Ukrainian) civilization; and others.

The magazine covers some specific events: On November 23, 2014, on-line Skype discussion was organized regarding “The Nation-Building in Post-soviet Countries: Commonalities and Differences” with participants from Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, and Canada. The magazines conducted a few statistical studies regarding an estimation of Belarusians’ population in diaspora and migration processes of Belarusians to Canada.  In September’ issue 2016, the main materials covered the 32nd Convention of the Belarusians of North America that was held in the hotel “Lord Elgin” in Ottawa (September 3-5, 2016).

The magazine initiated the project “The Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development”; this project was published in February 6, 2016 for a further public discussion. The magazine created the Slides Library “BELARUS FOREVER” and more than 60 short educational materials within the project “Together/ RAZAM”. We are searching a support from Belarusian community in the web-magazine activities and we expect substantial improving in the work of editorial board.

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Piotra Murzionak: The place of Eastern Slavic Belarusian-Ukrainian civilization among other civilizations

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.82-91)

Along with the evidence for the existence of a distinct Eastern Slavic Belarusian-Ukrainian Civilization its place among other civilizations is discussed. Most of civilization classifications assign Belarus and Ukraine to Orthodox or Eurasian/Russian or Eastern civilization – different name of the same civilization. But that is a moot point. In our opinion, Belarus, and Ukraine together form a distinctive Eastern European Slavic civilization and as a sub-civilization belongs to the Western, but not to the Eurasian civilization. We have a number of arguments to support this statement including historical, ethnic, religion, and mentality aspects, and commonality with Western civilization.  We believe that the Slavs who migrated to Eastern Europe in the fifth to ninth centuries, for various reasons, formed later two civilizations  –  Eastern Slavic (Belarusian-Ukrainian) and Eurasian.

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Igar Prakapovich: Poem. Short story “The forest Brother”

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.92-93)

The poem and short story by I. Prakapovich are published.

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Interview with Yu. Rapetski

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.94-103)

The magazine “Culture, Nation” publishes the full text of the interview with Yu Rapetski which he gave to the magazine “The Source of Life/Krynitsa Zyccja”  where it will be published in an abbreviated form.

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To the 75-th Anniversary of Famous Belarusian Poet, Sjarhei Paniznik

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.104-109)

The editorial board of “Culture, Nation” congratulates his colleague, Mr. S. Paniznik, with 75-year anniversary and wished him good health and further fruitful work for the good of our country.

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To the 80-th Anniversary of Nina Debolskaja
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, pp.110-116)

In the section “Anniversaries” we publish a selection of materials prepared by Mr. S. Paniznik dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Nina Debolskaja known translator of poems of Belarusian poets.

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Calendar of important events in the life of the Belarusians in 2017
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2017, issue 18, p.117-119)

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Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 17, March 2017

Editorial (magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2017, issue 17, pp. 4-7)

Piotra Murzionak: Preface to the 17th issue of “Culture, Nation”, March 2017

Dear readers!

Editorial Board congratulates you on the Day of Freedom – 2017. The celebration took place this year in Belarus under extremely adverse conditions. States have included the repressive apparatus to stifle free expression of ideas, and to debase the Belarusians who are fighting for the establishment of democracy in the country and for the formation of conditions for the building of the Belarusian nation. We wish freedom to our people and to our country. Long Live Belarus!

It is a pleasure to note that the Editorial Board of the magazine “Culture Nation” enriched by two members – Mrs. Wolga Ipatava and Mr. Sergey Paniznik. We sincerely hope that so well-known and respected writers and public figures make the magazine activity in the Belarusian ether even more visible and bright.

As before, every issue of the magazine begins with the “Strategy of development of the Belarusian nation”. “The Strategy” is supplemented now by the proposals of Asipovichy friends of the Belarusian Language Society. Most of the members of the organization (20 of 24 friends) agree with the basic provisions of “Strategy”. We invite other readers to send their comments and suggestions to improve the content of “Strategy” at: chasopis.sakavik@hotmail.com.

Please pay attention to a survey on the neutrality of Belarus; the survey is located on our website www.sakavik.net. The neutrality of Belarus is one of the defining moments of  “Strategy”. We would be grateful if you can find a few minutes to express their attitude regarding the possibility of a neutral state of Belarus.

We ask organizations who basically agree with the provisions of “Strategy”, to join the implementation of its tasks.

In this issue, a comparative overview of the events which took place during the first and the last the country’s independence periods (1917-1923 and 1988-1994, respectively) is presented. In both cases, the declaration of independence did not lead to a positive ending – the building of the real national state. So, the statehood took place, but the real nation-state, unfortunately, has not yet been established. It was of interest to look at the beginning and the end of the XX century in order to analyze the positive and negative moments, the balance of which was not in favor of the full implementation of the national idea. A comparative analysis was also prompted by the defeat of the national-democratic forces in the past two decades, the causes of these failures have a fairly common with those that occurred during the first and the last declaration of independence. The analysis finds a number of similarities in those periods, which include a great desire in the realization of the national idea created by favorable historical conditions, and, at the same time, the lack of an overall strategy and unity in the approach to the solution of the national ideas as well as a non-critical support for national ideas by Belarusian population.

We can agree with Mr. A. Milinkevich, that we need to do homework on the failures not only that happened in December 2010, but for all of the latest period (1990-2017). It is a hope that constructive criticism made in the review might be useful for those Belarusian leaders who have not yet found the opportunity to unite and carry out the implementation of their ideas and tasks within the overall common strategy. Such a strategy must yet been agreed aiming to use it in the practice for national education of the population, since education has a key to the construction of the nation-state. A feature of the solution of the national idea in Belarus is that it should be carried out simultaneously with the solution of political and democratic issues.

The magazine contains a brief summary (annotations) of two books published in Pastavy region by Jan Draunitski “Belarusian teachers’ seminary in Pastavy”. 1942 – 1944 – “Sumezza”, Pastavy, 2016, 104 p. and by Vadim Shyshko “Belarusian army of 2004 period. Look from inside”. Logvinau, Minsk, 2016, 145 p. The output of these books written by local people suggests that the Belarusian people gradually awakened – that’s a good sign for the future of Belarus.

At the end of the magazine the most important calendar dates in April and May and over 2017 year are placed.

Enjoy your reading.

Editor,

Piotra Murzionak

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Discussion “The Nation Building and Modernity – 2015-2017”
“Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” (continuation, March 31, 2017).

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2017, issue 17, pp. 8-12)

“The Strategy of the Belarusian Nation Development” was firstly published in the magazine “CULTURE, NATION” in March 2016 (issue 13, pp. 27-34). In every issue of the magazine we provide now updated versions of “The Strategy”. The aim of “the Strategy” is to build a neutral, national state in which absolutely equal rights will have representatives of national minorities and representatives of predominant ethnicity – Belarusians. The Strategy includes tasks, approaches and resources to realize the national idea. We are grateful to all people participating in the discussion. Naturally, the magazine is waiting for new comments, so that as much as possible to improve “the Strategy”. 

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Peter Murzonak: Belarusian national idea at the beginning and at the end of the twentieth century

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2017, issue 17, pp. 13-35)

In the last century there were two historical events that directly influenced the formation of the Belarusian nation. Both events were associated with the collapse of the empires, in 1917 – the Russian Empire, in 1990 – the USSR. The article deals with comparative aspects of the approaches in the implementation of the national idea carried out by conscious national forces in the years that immediately followed after the two historical events. Despite the relative conventionality of the plot proposed the analysis finds a number of similarities in both periods, which include a great desire in the realization of the national idea in favorable historical conditions created, and, at the same time, the lack of an overall strategy and unity in the approaches to the solution of the national idea, as well as a non-critical support for it by the Belarusian population. Shortcomings that have occurred in both historical periods are visible via incomplete national construction, and they continue to exist in a chronic form in the environment of national forces today. 

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Annotations. New books from Pastavy region of Belarus (by P. Murzionak)

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2017, issue 17, pp. 36-39)

The magazine “Culture, Nation” received an information about the release of two new books in 2016 by the authors from Pastavy region of Belarus. Authors of the books are Jan Draunitsky and Vadzim Szyshko. Ian Dravnitsky (born 1932), a native of Kamai, a teacher, local historian and author of several books about the history of the region (Mjadel, Astravechchyna, Pastaushchyna). Vadzim Szyszko (born 1981), historian, ethnographer. Jan Draunitski “Belarusian teachers’ seminary in Pastavy”. 1942 – 1944 – “Sumezza”, Pastavy, 2016, 104 p.  Vadzim Shyshko “Belarusian army of 2004 period. Look from inside”. Logvinau, Minsk, 2016, 145 p.The output of these books written by local people suggests that the Belarusian people gradually awakened – that’s a good sign for the future of Belarus.

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Calendar of important events in the life of the Belarusians in 2017

(magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2017, issue 17, pp. 40-43)

April – May 2017

April 4 – 460 years of the anniversary of Leu Sapeha (1557-1633), the state, political, and military figure

May 20 – 115 years since the anniversary of Jazep Pushcha (1902-1964), poet, critic, translator

April 19 – 105 years since the birth of Leonid Proksha (1902-1944), the Belarusian writer

May 1 – 95 years since the birth of Alexander Salavej (1922-1978), the Belarusian poet

135 years since the birth of the great poets of the Belarusian people, the classics of the national literature – Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas

 The most important anniversaries in the life of the Belarusians in 2017

1155 years of Polotsk (in 862 mentioned in the “Chronicle of Bygone Years”)

950 years of Minsk (in 1067 mentioned in the “Chronicle of Bygone Years”)

655 years ago, in 1362, troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by Alherd defeated the combined forces of the Golden Horde on the river Blue Water

500 anniversary of Belarusian book printing – in 1517 Frantsysk Skaryna printed the first Belarusian-language book “Psaltyr”

490 years since the birth of Konstantin V. Astrorzsky, political and cultural figure (1527-1608)

400 years since the founding of gymnasium in Slutsk (1617), one of the oldest secondary schools in Belarus (from 1788 public evangelical school, a school district in 1809, in 1827 high school, in 1868 – 1918 Classical Gymnasium)

375 years since the birth of Abukhovich Theodore (1642 – 1707), writer, memoirist, a statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

255 years ago ballet school was founded in Grodno ((1762, it existed until 1785)

165 years ago, in 1852, theater placed in Minsk the first Belarusian opera “The Maid” (“Idyll”) (music by S. Manyushka, K. Kryzhanouskaga, libretto by V. Dunin-Marcinkevich)

155 years since the publication (1862) of Belarusian primer (ABC) published in Warsaw by A.U.Askerka

110 years ago (1907) in Vilnius publishing house “Nasha Niva” was established (existed till 1914)

110 years ago (1907) the first Belarusian theater troupe I. Bujnitskaga was created (existed to 1913)

100 years from the 1st All-Belarusian Congress (December 1917)

Sources: http://moiro.by/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=1935&Itemid=14&lang=be

https://biblioshtuchki.jimdo.com

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