ABSTRACTS, 2020, #25 and #26

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Magazine
“KULTURA, NATSYJA”,
Issue 26, December 2020

Entire issue in Belarusian with English abstracts and Russian resume

Table content and Abstracts

Table content and Abstracts

“Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020

Editorial

Piotra Murzionak: Revolution and Nation

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.16-20, www.sakavik.net)

A conference dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Uladzimir Karatkevich

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.21-65, www.sakavik.net)

Siarhej Paniznik: Our Ancestors’ Horses Didn’t Deal with Horse-collars

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.24-37, www.sakavik.net)

M. Kenka: “My Part in the Publication of UladzimirKaratkevich’s Works”

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.38-44, www.sakavik.net)

Paterson Franco Costa: Our Karatkevich via Brazilian eyes                                        

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.45-47, www.sakavik.net)

Piotra Murzionak: The Man Who Contributed to Nation-building

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.48-52, www.sakavik.net)

Galina Tumilovich: Ragachouski Diary by U.Karatkievich: Beside Origins

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.53-59, www.sakavik.net)

Yuras Shametska: Poetic cycle “Tauryda” by UladzimirKaratkevich and “Crimean Sonnets” by Adam Mitskevich

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.60-65, www.sakavik.net)

Vital Zajka: Control Over Public Discourse in Belarus and United States: Paradoxes and Similarities                                                                                                                 

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.66-75, www.sakavik.net)

Liavon Karpovich: “The Feat of Judith and Skaryna”                                                        

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.76-87, www.sakavik.net)

Igar Prakapovich: Secrets of the Kazloushchyna Chapel

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.88-96, www.sakavik.net)

Igar Prakapovich: The Neurі People Group                                                   

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.97-102, www.sakavik.net)

Igar Prakapovich: Teraz (Tsieraz)                                                                    

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.103-107, www.sakavik.net)

Viachaslau Shved, Jerzy Grzybowski:  Historia Białorusi od czasów najdawniejszych do roku 1991. Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. 2020-11-23. (new handbook in Polish)

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.108-110, www.sakavik.net)

Michas Kenka: Translation of “Scenes in the Diet. Harodnja. 1793.” by Yuseph Kraszewski (continued)

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, December 2020, N26, pp.111-177,  www.sakavik.net)

Igаr Prаkаpovich: Two humorous stories – “Pregnant horse”, “Andronik”

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.178-180, www.sakavik.net)

Piotra Murzionak: Information concerning activities by the Belarusian Institute of Sciences and Arts, Canada (BINIM, Canada) covering the period from November 2017 to October 2020 (taken from his report presented during the general meeting of the Institute which took place in the form of a electronic virtual meeting on the 18th of October, 2020)

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.181-202,  www.sakavik.net)

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Abstracts

Editorial

Piotra Murzionak: Revolution and Nation

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, pp.16-20, http://www.sakavik.net)

The Revolution is going on in Belarus. Yes (!), because it is nothing but an attempt to change the existing system into a new one. Belarusian people took to the streets peacefully to change the authoritarian system formed over 26 years ago by the country’s first president, Mr. Alexander Lukashenka, the former director of a “soviet state farm”, and today the last dictator of the Europe. Indeed, there are no more examples in Europe of countries where a person has been in power for so long. There are such countries in the world, but they are not all European: African (Cameroon, where the same man is in power for 45 years; Equatorial Guinea – 41; Republic of Congo – 36; Uganda – 34; Chad – 30; Eritrea -27, Rwanda – 26) or Asian (Iran – 39, Cambodia – 35; Kazakhstan – 28; Tajikistan – 28). In most cases, the presence of such “long-lived” leaders indicates undemocratic order in such countries.

But, apparently, the revolution did not begin because of the long rule of the country by one man. What happened in Belarus then? Why did people suddenly begin to demand the release of political prisoners, new fair elections, freedom – goals that cannot be achieved without the removal from power of the unchanging authoritarian leader of Belarus.

However, Mr. Lukashenka became such a dictator not just this year. His dictatorial manners have been noticed by many conscious people from the national milieu right from the very beginning of his coming to power. They manifested themselves in taking definite steps to dispose of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Belarus; in changing the Constitution and state symbols through provoked referendums held against the background of the promised fight against corruption and economic union with Russia; in the brutal suppression of any protests, especially in 2006 and 2010, after which one could speak of an almost complete defeat of the opposition; in the gradual destruction of all Belarusian and national-conscious, which in many ways can be qualified as an ethnocide of the Belarusian people. Having received unprecedented presidential powers, electing a submissive parliament, creating loyal creative unions and the media, adopting laws that disallow such actions as “do not stand and clap”, “you can’t walk with white-red-white balloons”, “you can’t walk on the sidewalks and peacefully to protest”, and today it is impossible for more than three people to stand in their yard – Mr. Lukashenka “forced” Belarusians to finally take to the streets.


It turned out (!) that all our neighbors and not only them, and also Belarusians around the world felt great pride for the Belarusian people, who “slept” for so long, being under the oppression of historical conditions, circumstances, habitual tolerance, etc., and now for more than 4 months in a row people take to the streets demonstrating his dignity and expressing their determination to get rid of tyranny.


How did Lukashenka bring Belarusians to a boiling point, in a country that many people in the post-Soviet space set as an example of cleanliness, order and a good life? Is it true that, by 2020, Lukashenka did satisfy the majority of Belarusian society with his harsh methods of governing the country? Or it may be that what very gradually seemed to accumulate against the background of many years of lies and promises suddenly erupted into a revolution only today?!


I believe that the regime’s contemptuous attitude towards the people during the COVID epidemic did not become the impetus for the revolution, but was only its background. The main reasons for the Belarusian revolution were resentment and feelings of deceived people during and after the presidential election, and the second reason was pain, injustice and humiliation during peaceful protests, when people felt and saw violence, excessive use of force and reluctance of the authorities to recognize protesters as human beings. For Mr.Lukashenka people on the streets are “thugs, rats, mercenaries of the Western secret services.” The inhuman dictator and the murderous dogs, enclosed by the balaclavas he bred to defend his immense power, cause nothing but disgust, anger, and unforgiveness.

In almost all post-Soviet countries, revolutions took place at one time or another, which were called symbolically colored, but in essence they were for the cause of national liberation. This indicates, first of all, that those revolutions said “welcome” to national freedom, and “goodbye” – to the Soviet heritage. The Belarusian Revolution of 2020 can be defined as one for national-liberation but only conditionally – in the sense that the liberation of the country from the malicious and cunning dictator with pro-Soviet thinking can be transferred only by the word “liberation (from this dictator”). However, once Lukashenka leaves, much of the same robot-like minset and robot-like officials will continue to function. National liberation from the past legacy will not happen immediately. It is unlikely that the lustration of “robots” will help and whether it will even be fully justified to all perpetrators intimidated by the dictator (except those who committed crimes)? Will a poisoned society / population itself be cleansed during the revolution and turn into a real mature nation? It may be. But not immediately.

The revolution in 1991, when Belarus gained independence, could be formally called as one for liberation. But it, in fact,somehow passed by most Belarusians relatively unnoticed. Thus, the word liberation does not quite correspond to today’s Belarusian revolution. However, you can’t call it national as well, despite the fact that it is being held under national flags. The bearers of the revolution and its leaders do not carry national slogans and do not set goals aimed at resolving the issue of some national idea and building a nation-state. The main demands of protesters is to release political prisoners, investigate and to punish crimes committed against the people during the protests, and to hold new elections. These are completely democratic demands. At the same time, without their resolution it is impossible to even dream of coming to the final realization of the people’s national identity for the future. That is why I call the people’s democratic revolution that began in Belarus “the Revolution of Hope 2020″, which will eventually pull our beautiful European country out of colonial Eurasian slavery and allow it to develop in a civilized way. Then, to seal the future of the feeling of Belarusian nationhood, it will be necessary to declare the achievement of victory in this democratic revolution. But how to achieve it?

To this point, it does not seem that there are the necessary prerequisites in place for this. The general public seemingly is not convinced that Lukashenka did loose the election. Yes, there is plenty of evidence that the election was rigged, but it is unlikely that information about election fraud was sufficiently reported by independent media to the entire population.


Despite hundreds of thousands of protesters in Minsk, the rest of the population of the city of two million is watching the demonstrations from their balconies. Obviously, such packed protests are a great success, testifying to the awakening of the nation. After all, until recently, Mr. Mikalai Statkevich could take up to 1,000 demonstrators to the streets. And yet, if before it was thought that a hundred thousand protesters in the capital would be enough for the dictatorial regime to retreat or react with a change, now, according to Mrs. S.Aleksievich (Charter-97, December 5, 2020), it would be desirable to see a million protesters on the streets of the capital.The feeling that the revolution has slowed down and one of the reasons for this is that people, who take to the streets, are deprived of many leaders – many of them abroad, others in prisons. Those horizontal protest groups that are self-organizing in their neighborhoods are not yet able to merge into one general protest.

The situation leveled off in December 2020 after 4 months of protests because the protests subsided, the regime drove people of the new opposition wave into more enclosed yards. It is very doubtful that they will soon be able to escape from there. By 2020 nationally conscious forces had been driven into the ghetto. During the current situation of status quo (if nothing changes), there will be a sweep among the people of the new wave during which “black and olive” servants-bandits of the regime with balaclavas on their faces will pay tribute to the dictator. Belarusians do not have weapons, and if they did, the example of defeat in the armed struggle for national freedom in Chechnya clearly shows that guerrilla warfare will doubtly achieve success nowadays. Moreover, Belarus, as once A.Adamovich declared to it be the “Belarusian Vendee”, in fact, it remains so to this point. In the country, which in the past was the place of pilgrimage for retired Soviet officers, where Lukashenka, a follower and diligent student of former Soviet satraps (Mazur, Masherov, Kozlov) still rules, there is the Stalin line, while peaceful protesters who want fair democratic change are fenced off by barbed wire. It is very symbolic that 300,000 people under the white-red-white flags, which they raised as a symbol of change, are not allowed to Stella in the center of Minsk, because these national flags, according to the dictator, were used by collaborators during World War II. The barbed wire wall that surrounded Stella became a new wall between the new and the old, between East and West, between Byzantium and Rome. And the Belarusian army these days is preparing for the Russian-Belarusian military exercise “West-2021”.


After several months of continuous resistance, which has not yet led to the desired changes, foremostly, the expected departure from the country by airplane with the flight number “one”, the revolution is entering a chronic phase, where the authorities will have the upper hand. So far, none of the dictator’s immediate entourage has resigned. The extraordinary session of the Belarusian Parliament announced in September to consider violence in the country’s streets did not take place for obvious reasons. Lukashenka has started his next hit game with changes to the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus – he wants to buy time.


It seems that the existing sentiments and hopes for the resumption and intensification of protests may possibly not come true by spring. It is obvious that tolerant and prudent Belarusians, who have not yet joined the revolution, decided to wait for this moment, so as not to become even worse than it is under Lukashenka. Supposedly having a monthly salary of “500” (dollars), when in reality only”300″, there is a feeling that workers can go outside only when it gets really bad for them, at least, with lower numbers than the above.


It seems that the revolution lacks the reserves to shift the situation in its favor. There have been many episodes in the history of Belarus when the development of the nation was associated with the influence of external forces or with the weakening of the power of the Eastern Empire. We recall that the creation of the BNR and the BSSR was largely due to the collapse of tsarist Russia, the October coup and the German occupation, rather than internal forces. The Belarusian revival in the 1930s took place against the background of a new economic policy in the USSR, and the 180-degree reversal of the Bolsheviks in national policies was caused by their desire to carry out a world proletarian revolution.This was the reason for the subsequent defeat of the national democratic forces, which prevented them from achieving their goals at that time. Belarusianization took place even during the Second German Occupation during the last World War. The second wave of Belarusian revival in the late twentieth century was the result of the collapse of the USSR and the weakness and chaos in Russia, which was accompanied by declaration of national sovereignty by all 15 post-Soviet republics throughout 1991.


Is Russia weak and indifferent today in relation to Belarus? Obviously, not. Russia is the main influential “regulator” for Belarusians for the last two centuries. She keeps her hand on the pulse of events in Belarus and it is clear that Russia is satisfied with Lukashenka for the main reason of fearing color revolutions. This is clearly stated in Putin’s decree №683 “Concerning National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation” (Moscow, December 31, 2015). In addition, Russia is striving for hegemony in the post-Soviet space and recent events in the South Caucasus have clearly demonstrated this (the example of Ukraine is before everyone’s eyes).

So, who can help Belarusians regain their rights to life, freedom of thought, assembly, election? Various European countries, the United States, and Canada have adopted and voiced relevant statements, acts that not only disgrace Lukashenka’s regime, but also specifically restrict the leaders of this regime through appropriate economic and political sanctions. To inspire people to further struggle there are now hopes for forces, which are concentrated around the national leader of S.Tikhanovskaya. These forces are primarily all fresh political emigrants and the Belarusian diaspora, which was settled in Europe and America during the last two waves of emigration during the post-war and post-Soviet era. They all seem to be working together now. This is evidenced by the recent World Congress of Belarusians, as well as by numerous protests by Belarusians abroad in the streets of many cities around the world, which are not subsiding and taking place in parallel with the protests in Belarus itself.

It is obvious that the alliance of Belarusians abroad is currently the only force that can change the status quo in Belarus. Will it be decisive and effective, as this happened in the case for the Polish nation at the end of World War I when Polish emigrees decided the fate of restoring their home country to Polish statehood? At least, this example gives a positive answer. Obviously, the revolution cannot be exported, but Belarusians abroad, who make up that sixth part of the Belarusian nation, they identify with their own people in Belarus and they are Belarusian-minded. Any suggestion about the export of the revolution does not apply here. Belarusians who live abroad can and must support the current Belarusian revolution through both political and economic means. The author of this article has not yet to this point been a supporter of economic sanctions, which many consider an effective mechanism for influencing the ruling elite. However, the analysis above shows that if the economic situation does not deteriorate, primarily for internal reasons, the regime can survive, the democratic revolution might be defeated, and the implementation of the national idea will be postponed for some time again.

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A conference dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Uladzimir Karatkevich

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, pp.21-65, http://www.sakavik.net)

On Saturday, November 28, 2020, a party dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the famous Belarusian writer Uladzimir Karatkevich was held. The party was organized by members of the Belarusian Institute of Science and Arts in Canada (BINIM, Canada) with the participation of the Belarusian-Canadian Alliance. For its rich content, the party, which was online for three hours, can no doubt be called a conference. Participants of the conference party and spectators are very grateful to its direct organizers: Uladzja and Yuras Shametska (preparation of the program and conducting the event), Ina and Alexander Karatkevich, Sergei Mazgavy (technical support of the broadcast), Alexandra Logvin, Elena Lyavonchanka, Valjantsina Shauchenka, Vital Karasik, Mikhail Rykov, Uladzja Shametska (musical and literary pauses). The program of the conference-party is given below, followed by the materials presented by the speakers to web-magazine “Culture. Nation”. There is also a link to the BINIM website, Canada, where you can find a video of this wonderful conference party.

https://zbsb.org/news/abroad/kanadskiya-belarusy-adznachyli-90-goddze-karatkevicha-navukovay-anlayn-vecharynay/

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Siarhej Paniznik: Our Ancestors’ Horses Didn’t Deal with Horse-collars

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.2437, www.sakavik.net)

The author shares his memories of personal meetings with the brilliant Belarusian writer Vladimir Korotkievich who, had he lived to this year, would have been 90 years old. Those times of meeting with this renowned writer are shown in the photographs taken by the author of this article. S. Paniznik includes in his article four poems which he wrote and dedicated to V. Korotkievich.

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M. Kenka: My Part in the Publication of Uladzimir Karatkevich’s Works

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.38-44, www.sakavik.net)

M. Kenka comments on the works of the well-known Belarusian writer, Uladzimir Karatkevich (Russian variant spelling – Vladimir Korotkevich) which are coming out in a new series of 25 tomes in Belarus under the guidance of professor Anatoly Vierabej. Kenka was assigned and already completed work on volumes 10 and 18. The first tome in this series came out in 2012 and to date 19 have been published. This is the second series of Karatkevich’s published works. The first was a 8-volume set which was produced from 1987 to 1991. The second series goes beyond acquainting readers with Karatkevich’s major works and writings. It includes subsequent findings by researchers who introduce new previously publicly unknown material written by Karatkevich, his comments and even drawings. Kenka states that volume 10 includes Karatkevich’s detective  novel Black Olshanski Castle which depicts life of people in Belarus both at the beginning of the 17th century and this is juxtaposed with events that took place in Belarus from 1930-1940’s. The name of the castle is fictional but largely based on one that existed in the village of Halshany (located within today’s Grodno Oblast). Kenka insists that this story now requires contemporary explanation, particularly to younger readers who did not experience the realities of life in the USSR. They would find many words and phrases from that period puzzling. Persons, literary works, geographical names and historical events need further explanation for today’s readers to fully understand the novel. One other aspect is the matter of Karatkevich’s drawings. As a child he already displayed an innate talent for drawing for which he did not pursue formal training. Yet researchers have discovered around 400 drawings by Karatkevich in his notes and manuscripts. Many of them were obviously connected with persons mentioned in his works. Their sketched expressions give greater understanding of Karatkevich’s understanding concerning his heroes and himself. They display his own feelings and personality, states Kenka. Since the publication of the latest volumes, pictures drawn by Karatkevich have been discovered too late to be included in their appropriate spots. In spite of this, Karatkevich’s drawings, newly discovered writings and commentaries will grant greater understanding of the author as a notable Belarusian writer and artist.

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Paterson Franco Costa: Our Karatkevich via Brazilian eyes                                        

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.45-47, www.sakavik.net)

The author noted that through Karatkevich’s works people switch to the Belarusian language and, accordingly, to the Belarusian worldview. Without the first, there is no the second. The only thing that really distinguishes Belarusians from other nations of the world is Belarusian language. The author concludes that “Our Karatkevich”, for him it is “Our Belarus”, which we dream and build in our hearts, in our lives, when we speak and read in Belarusian and care about the Belarusian heritage and continue it.

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Piotra Murzionak: The Man Who Contributed to Nation-building

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.4852, www.sakavik.net)

The author focuses on the part of U. Karatkevich’s work that concerns the writer’s valuable contribution to the foundation of the Belarusian nation. In the gallery of Belarusian heroes,belonging to the second half of the 20th century, U. Karatkevich standsin the same line with outstanding national figures such as A. Adamovich, V. Bykau, L. Heniyush, M. Ermalovich, U. Mulyavin, G. Tsitovich, who cemented the concept of a distinct Belarusian nation through their behavior in life and their creativity. U. Karatkevich wrote in the 60s and 80s of the last century, during the period of further russification, construction of communism and the creation of a new type of person – the Soviet man. Keeping in mind the need to create the moral and historical basis of the Belarusian nation at that time, it was necessary to have the courage not to fall into the circle of conjuncture. Using his great talent of literary expression, U. Karatkevich combined the Belarusian language and Belarusian history in his works, which gave a colossal result – he left forever for his nation the valuable soil on which it flourishes today and will prosper in the future. In their lightness and fascination, the works of Karatkevich might be compared with the works of Alexandre Dumas, Mikhail Bulgakov’s novel The Master and Margarita, or “Da Vinci Code” by Dan Brown. The works of the Belarusian writer, U. Karatkevich, proudly represent the Belarusian nation and Belarusian literature in the vast mixture of world literatures.

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Galina Tumilovich Ragachou Diary by U.Karatkievich: Beside Origins

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.5359, www.sakavik.net)

Uladzimir Karatkievich left a great legacy for Belarusians. He opened up a new and completely different Belarus, looking into the country’s historic past. He enriched Belarusian literature with new genres and themes. Thus, it is not without reason that he became a person of classic note while still alive. U.Karatkievich gained even greater recognition once he passed on, i.e., with the passage of time within our collective Belarusian mind he amassed greater recognition as a discoverer of Belarusian history and exquisite master of our language, in general as one of the most outstanding representatives that our nation has known. Today there is no doubt in our minds concerning our total appreciation of him in this capacity. His diary occupies a special place among his legacy of rich and variated genres. Although not extensive in length, covering a period slightly less than a year, it has proven to be an unusually important source of study related to the 20th century centering research on the history of Belarus during the years of the Grand Duchy of Litva and Russian Empire. In some sense this article plays out its unique role but also can be seen as an introduction to further historic research.

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Yuras Shametska: Poetic cycle “Tauryda” by UladzimirKaratkevich and “Crimean Sonnets” by Adam Mitskevich

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.6065, www.sakavik.net)

A comparative analysis of the creative interaction of literary works using the example of poetic cycles “Tauryda” by Uladzimir Karatkevich and “Crimean Sonnets” by Adam Mitskevich is given. The article was prepared for a presentation at the anniversary party dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Uladzimir Karatkevich, which took place on November 28, 2020 online.

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Vital Zajka: Control Over Public Discourse in Belarus and United States: Paradoxes and Similarities                                                                                                                

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N 26, December 2020, p.6675, www.sakavik.net)

This article tries to understand today’s processes taking place in Belarus and USA in the area of control over social discourse. The author analyses ideologies which are behind the powers that control social discourse in both countries. He comes to the conclusion that both ideologies possess much in common and stem from one common root. In spite of the fact that there is a vast difference in the intensity of control and extent of punishment to those who disagree with control tactics being implemented at the present time in Belarus and USA, today’s tendencies point to the possibility of seeing the development of greater similarity and coming together of methods which can lead to loss of freedom in the sphere of public discourse, and this in spite of the differences of societies in contemporary Belarus and USA.

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Liavon Karpovich: “The Feat of Judith and Skaryna”                                                        

(webmagazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.76-87, www.sakavik.net)

Over the past centuries many artists, sculptors, composers and writers have shown a special interest in the heroine, Jewess Judith, as described in theOld Testament apocryphal book known as The Book of Judith. L.Karpovich notes that Fraciszak Skaryna, the Belarusian publicist, included the translation of the Book of Judith as a part of his published translation of the Bible. Judith’s story is one of bravery at a time when the Israelites were being threatened by the Assyrian army. With trust in God she disguises herself as an informer and is allowed to enter the company of the Assyrian General Holophemes. Her beauty causes him to believe her and spend time with her. She helps to get himintoxicated and he eventually falls asleep. She then cuts off his head and takes it back in a sack to the Israelites. Her brave act staves off the Assyrians from attack. This great feat inspired many artists to paint her and L.Karpovich includes several classical artists’ paintings of Judith with Holophemes’ head, briefly commenting of how she is depicted in each example. The cover of Skaryna’s translated Book of Judith shows an artist’s engraving of Judith with Holophemes’ head. In his introduction to the Book of Judith in Belarusian translation Skaryna states that as animals, birds and insects are placed in their natural environments, so God places each people group in their respective places on earth to live and thus experience His blessing as they remain in their assigned territories. Skaryna’s statement has been translated and used in 70 languages.

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Igar Prakapovich: Secrets of the Kazloushchyna Chapel

(webmagazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.88-96, www.sakavik.net)

The author describes the chapel-tomb of the family of princes Drutski-Lubetski, which is located in the village of Kazloushchyna (Pastavy district) in the local Catholic cemetery. It was built in 1842-43 of rubble stone. In the floor of the central part of the chapel there is a closed hatch that leads to the crypt of the ground floor, which has 12 burial pits. On four of them there are plates with epitaphs, on which the surnames and dates of life and death are partially readable: Constance Sviatopolk-Mirskaya (1794-1865), Adelaide Sviatopolk-Mirskaya (Princess Drutskaya-Lubetskaya), Prince Ignatius Lubetsky (1809 – …), Mary of Snitki, Princess of Drutskaja-Lubetskaja (1810-1842). In Soviet times the chapel was abandoned and looted. Today the shrine has been renovated and operates as a small church. There are other burials in the cemetery associated with the Drutsky-Lubetsky family (in particular Rechitski). The author conducted a study of the life stories of the people buried in the chapel.

The author is looking for sponsors for the publication of the book “Drutskija-Lyubetskija. The famous family in Pastavy region” (about 120-130 pages) which mentions the following genera: Drutskija-Lyubetskija, Tyshkevichy, Vlasovskija, Sviatopolk-Mirskija, Lenskija and some others.

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Igar Prakapovich: The Neurі People Group                                                                              

(webmagazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.97-102, www.sakavik.net)

The Neuris were an ancient people group of whom historian Herodotus wrote in the 4th volume of his work History. According to his narrative this was a tribe or a group of tribes occupying the territory of present-day northern Ukraine and southern Belarus. Perhaps their territory was in the northwestern part of Belarus, in the region of Miadzielyshchina where the villages of Naury and Niaviery are located. Archeologists connect the territory of settlement of the Neuris with the area where Milahradsky culture was spread out. In excavations on the location of the ancient city near the village of Haradzishcha which is positioned only 2 kilometres from Naury archeologists have discovered in the lower levels of soil the remains of ceramic pieces which by their shapes resemble plates characteristic of Milahradski culture. The flourishing of the ancient city (sometime around the 6th century BC) concurs with Herodotus’ time period. How did the names of this long extinct people group come down to our time? Their settlements stretched across the high spots surrounded by Habskaje Swamp where earlier there probably existed a shallow lake. Radzivil’s Map of 1613 testifies to this fact showing the spillways of Vuzlianka River which are located in the large reservoir. The spillwasysempty into Narach River. Through the means of island-like isolation among those swamps ancient settlements were able to hold on to and pass on their ethnonyms to our time.

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Igar Prakapovich: Teraz (Tsieraz)                                                                                          

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.103-107, www.sakavik.net)

In northwestern Belarus we see a series of names with the base or prefix ofTeraz (Tsieraz). In Miadzielskij region we have oneestate named Tsieraz near Navasiolak; in Sharkaushchina we see noted on an old Russian map Tieriespol’ and Tieriespol’ye; in Astravieshchina – Tieriezdvor. We meet up with surnames with this base or prefix: Teraz, Tsierashkievich? Tsierashkovich, Tsiareshka. The roots of these names stem from 3 historical sources. We know that the Greeks had their God of Fertility and Wealth – Tsieraz,  – the “brother” of the Slavic Kupala. In ancient Rome we find the widely known cult of the Goddess of Fields and Toiling of Soil – Tserery.  In every case we find the name or surnameof Teras.In recent times the feminine name Tereza has been widely used. Perhaps the name of Teraz (Tsieraz) changed in Ukraine to Taras, in Belarus to Tsiaren’. It probably came from Pre-Dunajski Regions. The name of Teras was extremely popular during the dynasty of kings of the Tribe of Frakis. According to his research work, Z. Archibald laid out 5-generational line of theirpeople.This name is mentioned 4 times. Even though these historical events took place centuries ago and far from our places of dwelling, their historic footprints have remained among us in the form of ethnic toponyms.

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Viachaslau Shved, Jerzy Grzybowski:  Historia Białorusi od czasów najdawniejszych do roku 1991. Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. 2020-11-23. (new handbook in Polish)

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.108-110, www.sakavik.net)

The authors present the history of Belarus from the earliest times to 1991, when an independent Belarusian state appeared on the world map. The aim of publication is to familiarize the Polish reader with the history of Belarusian lands in the political, ethnic, cultural and economic aspect. The authors also paid attention to the contentious issues which arouse continued interest in Poland and in Belarus. The novelty of this publication lies in its design. In presenting historical events, the authors departed from the traditional chronological system, which is the most common in literature on the subject. Being aware of the complexity of the issues raised in the work, they decided to use a factual (problematic) system that allows for a more detailed presentation of the facts and their analysis. The monograph is addressed both to representatives of the academic community and to anyone interested in the history of our eastern neighbor.

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Michas Kenka: Translation of “Scenes in the Diet. Harodnja. 1793.” by Yuseph Kraszewski (continued)

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, December 2020, N26, p.111-177,  www.sakavik.net)

Mikhas Kenka provides the translation of “Scenes in the Diet” written by Polish author Yuseph Kraszewski into Belarusian. Roman through Kraszewski tells about the last Sejm of the independent Polish state – the Commonwealth. This Diet took place in Hrodna from June 17 to September 23, 1793. The first part of translation was presented in the previous 25th issue of “Culture. Nation”magazine.

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Igаr Prаkаpovich: Two humorous stories – “Pregndnt horse”, “Andronik”

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.178-180, www.sakavik.net)

Two humorous stories about different episodes from the life of Belarusian peasants have one thing in common – they all reflect unpretentious and simple folk humor.

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Piotra Murzionak: Information concerning activities by the Belarusian Institute of Sciences and Arts, Canada (BINIM, Canada) covering the period from November 2017 to October 2020 (taken from his report presented during the general meeting of the Institute which took place in the form of a electronic virtual meeting on the 18th of October, 2020)

(web-magazine “Kultura. Natsyja”, N26, December 2020, p.181-202,  www.sakavik.net)

BINIM, Canada has 22 members. BINIM, Canada was registered on the 20th of January, 2019 as a not-for-profit federal organization. The Institute’s activities are carried in accordance to its By-laws. Within the context of its official registration BINIM has been enabled to finance the publication of the book (Nie)rasstralianaya Paeziyai n Belarus, N. Hardziyenka’s visit in Canada, who is presently writing about Belarusian diaspora in Canada, and partially supported the production of the play Vulitsa Hieniush. Thanks to A. Karalkievich, the Institute’s website has been revamped (www.binim.org). The Institute’s activities were brought to light in the publication Culture. Nation (www.sakavik.net) and in other publications. We conducted special events together with others organizations both in private and with the members of Belarusian Canadian Alliance of Canada. One of the notable activities was celebrating the 100-year Commencement of the Belarusian National Republic. This celebration was conducted in Canada’s Parliament Building with unprecedented success. In the opinion of many, this turned out to be the best presentation among all Belarusian diaspora’s events throughout the whole world. One hundred eighty guests visited the exhibit that included a display of Belarusian books and tasting sumptuous varied treats. We sponsored and conducted various concerts, parties presenting Belarusian music, poetry and books. Three of our members: G.Tumilovich, Yu. Shamietska and P.Murzionak, foresee contributing to the program of the meeting of the International Council for Central and East European Studies that is to take place in August of 2021 in Montreal. Five books and more than 30 articles have been published in past issues of our magazine Culture. Nation (established by P.Murzionak in 2012). Since that time 25 issues of the magazine have been published with more than 130 articles from 44 authors. Almost 60 % of readers of this web-magazine come from Belarus. Since 2018 we have introduced the practice of awarding BINIM, Canada diplomas to persons who have contributed in a major way to the development of Belarusian culture and have engaged in research in Canada, Belarus and beyond the latter’s borders. In 2018 and 2019 BINIM, Canada’s diplomas were granted to 22 persons among whom 12 are members of the Institute (relating to 8 projects). The medal featuring 100 Years of BNR were granted to 9 members of BINIM, Canada. BINIM, Canada was represented at various English Canadian events. Representation by BINIM, Canada was realized in private at 2 Ukrainian festivals, The Capital Ukrainian Festival (in 2018 and 2019), at the Day of Remembrance of Victims of Communism and Nazism in Europe (from 2018 – 2020). In relation to the latter, representatives participate who have come from various diaspora organizations of affected countries such as Belarus, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungry, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine.

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Next issue see in April 2021

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Magazine
“CULTURE, NATION”,
Issue 25, April 2020

Piotra Murzionak: Editorial to “Culture. Nation”, issue#25, April 2020

(web-journal “Culture. Nation”, No. 25, April 2020, pp.4-10, http://www.sakavik.net)

The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus is spreading throughout the world and throughout Belarus. A lot of information about this viral infection is available online and in other media. Much is still unknown about this infectious disease, but it is clear that basically defenseless elderly people die, sometimes weakened by other chronic diseases. It seems the peak of the infection have passed in the countries where it started, in China, South Korea, Singapore, Vietnam. In Europe, America, Africa – the cases are still registered more and more. The number of irreversible victims worldwide as of April 29, 2020, four months after the epidemic began, exceeded 219,000 deaths, mainly from pneumonia, and more than 3.2 million infected people.

There are no vaccines, no specific drugs to fight this virus. I would very much like to see as few victims of this viral disease as possible in the world and in Belarus. Therefore, I want to thank all the medical workers – doctors, nurses, epidemiologists who are at the forefront are fighting to save sick people. I especially want to express my solidarity with fellow students and graduates of the Minsk State Medical Institute – do not get sick, be healthy, and take care of your loved ones.  Behind the background of infections and health problems, various local wars in the world, including the economic skirmishes that were observed between Belarus and Russia last year and early this year, receded into the background (as it seems). They seemed to find a way out in a different direction. Given the tensions caused by the adoption of 33 roadmaps and the creation of supranational bodies of the Union of Belarus and Russia, this somehow transformed into a change in the Constitution of the Russian Federation (although this procedure has not yet been completed) and half-clear agreements on oil and gas supplies from Russia to Belarus. However, both the nationally conscious and the ruling elites of Belarus are aware that this respite is temporary.
The appetites of the Kremlin boyars are always greedy and with a high probability their further behavior can be fairly easily predicted – the course of “soft economic colonization” of Belarus will continue. It is hard to believe they start a second war with the Eastern Slavs?!

It is unlikely that the eternal aggressor will be able to stop by the statements of Mr. Pompeo, the US Secretary of State that the Americans are ready to support the Belarusian government in some way – well, at least saing that Belarusians can buy as much oil in the USA as they want (at world prices). But that oil still needs to be brought. Attempts by the Lukashenko government to find reliable ways to deliver oil from other sources now and earlier (Venezuela, Azerbaijan, Norway) have never ended yet with the creation of the Baltic-Black Sea collector or, at least, the laying of a pipe from the Baltic ports to Belarusian oil refineries. Nevertheless, there is something to be said here as positive – at least in recent years, as a result of many disputes with Russia, algorithms for alternative oil supplies have been developed (procurement, Odessa-Brody pipeline, tankers, etc.).

However, this is not only about oil. Belarus has long landed in the sphere of geopolitical interests of Russia and, moreover, in 1999 signed an agreement on the creation of the Union of the two countries. By the way, no one asked the consent of the Belarusian people. Obviously, the Union of Russia and Belarus is a political union, and in the referendum of 1995, initiated by the First President of Belarus, Mr. Lukashenko, the Belarusian people supported his course only on economic integration with Russia.
And now what can Belarus do? How to get out of the trap? Ukraine already tried, it seems to be working out. Yes, through sacrifices, but it turns out! Although in return she received a chronic war in the Donbass and lost the Crimea, from which Russia forms an unsinkable aircraft carrier. For Belarus, there are no answers to these questions today, primarily due to the fact that “who is stronger is right.”

Unfortunately, there is another reason for this – a new redivision of the world is taking place. 30 years after the collapse of the USSR, Russia is again trying to restore its former dominant role in the world. Ukraine, Belarus, other neighbors are only victims of this revenge. The role played by the UN as a collective security body after World War II is now leveled. The creation of such bodies (the Westphalian Peace Treaty, the League of Nations) usually occurred after bloody wars, when the predatory powers shared what, in their opinion, should now belong to them for a long time. But the story repeats itself. Can the modern world stop a new slaughter? Do world leaders have the mind and desire to come up with other ways to spend unreasonable energy, for example, defeating COVID-19, stop climate change, feed the hungry? I would really like to wait for such a time.

Meanwhile, the Belarusian ruling elite is unknowingly participating in dangerous games with Russia. The cost of this game is the future of the Belarusian nation.

Enjoy reading the new issue of the magazine.

Piotra Murzionak, editor-in-chief of the magazine

April 30, 2020, Ottawa

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Sergey Paniznik: Mainland of mothers – homeland of fathers  (abstracts)

 (web-magazine “Culture. Nation”, issue 25, April 2020, p.11-18, www.sakavik.net)

This year, the Belarusian public will celebrate the round birth dates of a number of famous people who have made a significant contribution to the development of the Belarusian nation. Original materials were sent by our editorial board member, poet, writer and indefatigable chronicler, Mr. Sergey Paniznik. He sent both the dates of the life of famous Belarusians and poems dedicated to some of them. The editorial board sincerely thanks Mr. S. Paniznik for his work and kind memory.

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Piotra Murzionak: People of the Ottawa Chapter of the Belarusian Canadian Alliance (1997-2019)      (abstracts)                                                                                                   (web-magazine “Culture. Nation”, issue 25, April 2020, p.19-31, www.sakavik.net)

The article tells about the life of the Belarusian community in Ottawa over the last two decades. It describes in details the variety of activities including National Day celebrations (25 March), concerts, formal and informal meetings, the work of Belarusian Saturday school, and provides the names of community activists.

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Piotra Murzionak, Zina Gimpelevich:   Belarusian Institute of Science and Art, Canada in 1967-2019      (abstracts)                                                                                                  (web-magazine “Culture. Nation”, issue 25, April 2020, p.32-46, www.sakavik.net)

The activities of the Institute (BINIM, Canada) are highlighted in the early period, in 1986-2016, and in the current period (since 2017).  The article includes: the history of the BINIM, Canada; the participation of the members of the Institute in many forums where presentations of Belarusian issues were discussed, the collaboration with scientists from other countries who study Belarusian topics, organization of exhibitions. The list of 41 books published by the Institute members is presented in the end of article.

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Katsjaryna Muzychenka, Larysa Skrypko, Igar Prakapovich: Organ culture of the Postavy  region    (abstracts)

(web-magazine “Culture. Nation”, issue 25, April 2020, pp.47-59,  www.sakavik.net

During the study, the authors visited the settlements, Pastavy, Kamai, Lyntupy, Luchaj, where organs are currently working, held meetings with priests and organists and recorded interviews with them; examined the organs, their condition, age, design features and recorded their sound. The history of nine Postavy organs is described, organists born in the Pastavy region are presented, organ music festivals are covered (2013, 2015-2017). To popularize organ culture in the region the tourist route “The Road to the King of Instruments” was developed.  It is planned to make a high-quality recording of organs with participation of local and well-known organists in the country, to publish a music CD “Sounds of the organs of the Pastavy region”, and to make a documentary.

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Interview Natalii Gardzienka with the editor of the magazine “Culture. Nation”  (abstracts)

(web-magazine “Culture. Nation”, issue 25, April 2020, p.6066www.sakavik.net)

Natalia Gardzienka, PhD in History is the well-known researcher of the Belarusian diaspora, the author of more than 30 books on this topic. She answered several questions that related to the specifics of the study of the problems of the diaspora, the role of the post-war and post-Soviet diaspora in the development of the Belarusian nation, and further creative plans.

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Ales Karlyukevich: Afterword to the book “Francysk Skaryna in the languages ​​of the peoples of the world”. Foreword by Ales Susha. 4th ed. Minsk: Ja. Kolas Printing House, 2019. 152 pp.: Ill.  (abstracts)

(web-magazine “Culture. Nation”, issue 25, April 2020, pp.6770www.sakavik.net)

The author informs about the publication of the 4th edition of the book “Francysk Skaryna in the Languages ​​of the World”. The book gives a translation of the preface to the book of F.Skaryna “Judith” in 70 languages ​​of the world. This preface is a vivid example of F.Skaryna’s love for his homeland and pride in it. The annotation contains information about some translators (Norbert Randau, Uladzimir Chapega, Gao Mang).

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Jazep Kvach: True stories (presented in the original language of narrators)      (abstracts)

(magazine “CULTURENATION”, April 2020issue 25pp.71-95,  www.sakavik.net)

Real short stories about the life of villagers, about the fate of children and families taken to work in Germany and unusual life stories of some people during and after World War II are presented. Entries were made by the author in the Sharkaushchynski district of the Vitebsk region (continued, the first part read in the previous, 24th issue of the magazine, November 2019).

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Daria Danilevich, Alisa Yanush, Igar Prakapovich:   The legacy of the Drutsky-Lyubetsky clan in the Postavy district  (abstracts)

(magazine “CULTURENATION”, April 2020issue 25pp.96-118,  www.sakavik.net)

The article presents the results of a study of the heritage of Drutsky-Lyubetsky in the Postavy district. Drutsky-Lyubetsky’s, a well-known clan on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Commonwealth of Two Peoples and the Russian Empire, left a rich cultural heritage on the territory of Northwestern Belarus. Representatives of the Pastavy branch of this fa,ily, such as Anufry, Ignatius Stanislav, and Vladimir Drutsky-Lyubetsky’s, Svyatopolk-Mirsky’s, Lensky’s, Galery and others, left behind manor and park ensembles in Mankavichi and Kazloushchyna, temples and chapels in Asinagaradok, Kazloushchyna, Mankavichi, Varanets, Azhuny, Navadrutsk railway station in “Belarusian Paris”, agricultural school in Varanets, results of study “Materials on the history and geography of Dzisna and Vileika districts of the Vilnja province”.

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Igar Prakapovich:   Beata Tyszkiewicz and Pastavy district  (abstracts)

(magazine “CULTURENATION”, April 2020issue 25pp.119-123,  www.sakavik.net )

Beata Tyszkiewicz is a famous Polish actress. In her creative destiny more than fifty films. She was born in Vilnius in 1938 and lives in Poland. What does it have to do with the Postavy region? It turns out to be very even related. Generic threads connect her to the village of Kazloushchyna, which lies in the east of the Pastavy district. Henrich Tyszkiewicz, owner of the pre-war Kazlousk estate, is the brother of her father, Christoph. The article describes the history of the estate and the nature of activities of its owners, presents contemporary pictures of the former estate.

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Аleg Rudakou: About the presentation of the film “Benedict Dybovski. Secrets of the Sacred Sea” and A.Rudakov’s book “Essays, Stories and Tales of Belarusians of the Irkutsk Region”    (abstracts)

(magazine “CULTURE. NATION”, April 2020, issue 25, pp.124-127, http://www.sakavik.net)

The Irkutsk Belarusian club “Kryvichy” organized two presentations in March 2020: the film “Benedict Dybovski. Secrets of the Sacred Sea” (project “100 Names of Belarus”), and the book by A.Rudakov “Essays, Stories and Tales of Belarusians of the Irkutsk Region”. Benedict Dybowski was born in Belarus, near Molodechno, by the age of 30 he was famous professor of zoology at the University of Warsaw, participants of expeditions around the world; awards, recognition in the scientific community … He participated in the uprising of 1863, exiled to Siberia. He described many new species of crustaceans, hitherto unknown to science, and other living creatures of Lake Baikal. Book by A.Rudakov is the history of the resettlement of Belarusians in the Irkutsk region. Only according to the Stolypin reform (1906-1912) about 300 thousand Belarusians moved here. Today, about 50 thousand Belarusians live in the region. The Almanac presents the works of 22 authors. Most authors write about themselves and about their families. This publication is the first attempt to comprehend the contribution of the Belarusian people to the development of the Baikal region.

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Michas Kenka: Translation of Scenes in the Diet. Harodnja. 1793” by Yuseph Kraszewski  (abstracts)

(magazine “CULTURENATION”, April 2020issue 25pp.128205, www.sakavik.net

Mikhas Kenka provided the translation of “Scenes in the Diet” written by Polish author Yuseph Kraszewski into Belarusian. The second part of translation will be presented in the next 26th issue of magazine “Culture. Nation”.

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