ABSTRACTS, 2015, ## 9-12



Issue 12, December 2015


Alexander Kasho: History of false thesis that Belarus is a quasistate, the nation invented by Bolsheviks
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2015, issue 12, pp. 8-22)

One of the theses of the modern Russian information war against its neighbors is the idea that Belarus and Ukraine are quasistates, the nations invented by Bolsheviks. The analysis of the national question in Russia after the October Revolution, inclusively with the thoughts of Lenin, Rosa Luxemburg, Bertrand Russell, is presented. It is alleged that the positive steps of the Bolsheviks towards the national question (self-determination of nations, later belarusizatsyja) were due to the weakness of the Bolshevik government and Lenin aspirations that the national movements may be temporary allies in the fight for the world proletarian revolution. An example of the establishment of the Bolshevik power in Kostyukovichskij region of Belarus with the participation of comrade Zhbankov in conditions of nationalist movements and anti-Bolshevik sentiments is presented. The views of Berdyaev, Trubetskoy, Loskij and other Russian and non-Russian (Hélène Carrère d’Encausse) intellectuals who denied the right of the Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples to independent existence are critisized. All of that type people do not think and do not want to know that Belarus is the sovereign state, and Belarusians is the nation that has emerged in the fight against the empire for the right to existence.


Summary of discussion “Nation-building and modernity. 2015”.
Topic: “The strategy of development of the Belarusian nation”.
A. AnisimA. KashoP. MurzionakI. ShumskajaA. Trusau(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2015, issue 12, pp. 23-68)

The characteristics of the Belarusian nation are provided including the level of self-identity \ nationalism \ patriotism; respect for independence/sovereignty and democratic values, the interrelations East-West; relations between the state and the national idea; the trends of changes in the nation over the past 20, 50, 100 years, the potential forces for the implementation of the national idea. A correct assessment of the current state of the nation is very important to determine the goals and objectives of the Strategy of the Belarusian nation development. On the basis of the materials submitted by experts an agreed version of the Strategy will be prepared and submitted for public discussion in the media for a period of 2-3 months. The strategy, in the case of wide discussion and dissemination might be a program for action for those people interested in the development of the nation. The Strategy is being developed for the entire Belarusian nation, and not for specific individuals, parties or social movements. Naturally, the magazine “CULTURE, NATION” invites other possible experts to join the development of the “Strategy of development of the Belarusian nation”. It is no secret that to develop such a project will not be easy task because of different views and approaches but we hope that we can find an agreement on the final stage so convinced of the need for such a strategy.


On the 90th Anniversary for Kastus Akula
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, December 2015, issue 12, pp. 69-78)

Kastus Akula (Alexandar Ignatavich Kachan), a Belarusian writer and social activist was born on November 16, 1925 in Veratseja village (Dokshitsy district, Vitebsk region). He died on January 29, 2008, buried in Toronto, Canada. During the German occupation, he was a teacher then in the spring 1944 he was a cadet officer of Belarusian Home Defence (Minsk). In 1944-1945, he fought in the 2nd Polish Corps of the British Army. He was a participant of the battle at Cassino, Italy. In 1947 he came to Canada. He was the founder and the first chairman of the Belarusian Association in Canada. He published the newspaper “Belarusian emigrants” and magazine “Zvazhaj” (1974-1997). On November 22, 2015 in the Belarusian cultural and religious center in Toronto a commemoration meeting dedicated to Kastus Akula was held. The magazine “Culture, Nation” joins the kind words to the writer and to the man. The memories about K. Akula written by Olga Ipatava and Piotra Murzionak are presented.




Issue 11, September 2015


(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, issue 11, September 2015, pp. 4-13)

It is discussed some issues of the existence of the Russian ethnos based on different theories of the last century, Panmangalism (Salauyou), Eurasism (Trubyatski, Gumilyou), in respect of promoting the idea of the “Russian world” today. The analysis of work of the Russian mass media aimed at justifying the restoration of the Russian empire is highlighted through the prism of a hybrid war of Russia against Ukraine. It has been suggested that in Russian society there is a demand to justify the aggressive policy. In response to this demand a variety of civil and political theories are developed, which have a scientific purpose to justify the legitimacy and necessity of the existence of Russia as an empire. Russian media have become a factory of lies, there are trolling offices in different parts of Russia those for money stamp lies, humiliation, and hatred of Ukrainians.

Piotra Murzionak: CHOICE OF PEACE
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, issue 11, September 2015, pp. 14-20)

It is discussed that in its history Belarus was almost never really fighting for its independence as it might be defined as a national liberation movement. That it was while getting a statehood in 1919 or joining of two parts of the country, East and West, just before II World War. During the time indicated the great countries, countries of “four” and Russia determined the fate of Belarusians. It was also true that they were strongly influenced by political, ideological, and cultural policies of Russia and were protected by Russian umbrella from the West. Russian pressure for two centuries resulted in almost absence of the will in Belarusians to fight for freedom and in a very low level of political culture. Belarus now continues to be under Russian economical and military pressure (propositions by Russian leaders to have a rouble as main money in Commonwealth countries, to create military airbase on Belarusian territory). As optimal outcome in this situation, a conducting of referendum about neutral status of Belarus is discussed.
Piotra Murzionak: Black Ribbon Day in Canada (remembrance day of communist and Nazi victims, consequences of Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact)
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, issue 11, September 2015, pp. 21-27)

The information about Black Ribbon Day, a national day of remembrance of victims of Communist and Nazi tyranny is provided. The event took place at the St. John the Baptist Ukrainian Catholic National Shrine in Ottawa on August 23, 2015.

Piotra Murzionak: The 105th Anniversary of Larissa Heniyush
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, issue 11, September 2015, pp. 28-33)

Larisa Heniyush, Belarusian poet, novelist and social activist, was born in 1910 in Grodno region in Belarus (nee Miklashevich (July 27, 1910). She graduated from high school in Volkovysk, Belarus in 1928. She married a Janka Heniyush and in 1937 she moved to Prague, where her husband studied and then worked as a doctor. They lived in Prague from 1937 to 1947. In Prague, she communicated with the Belarusian emigration, participated in the BDR government in exile. Since 1943 she became the General Secretary of the Government in exile and engaged in conservation and ordering of the archive of the BDR. In March 5, 1948 she was arrested in Prague, and in February 1949, the Supreme Court of the BSSR sentenced Larissa Heniyush to 25 years in prison camps together with her husband. In 1956, she and her husband were partly rehabilitated. After the liberation they settled at the homeland of her husband in Zelve, Grodno region where she died in 1983. While being in the USSR she refused to accept Soviet citizenship and remained a citizen of Czechoslovakia. The tragic fate befell other relatives of her family (Miklashevich): When the Red Army in 1939, joined the Western Belarus, the father of Larissa Anton Miklashevich was shot, and his mother and two sisters were deported to Kazakhstan. His mother died in Kazakhstan (1945); her brother Arkady was a soldier of Anders Army and died in July 27, 1944 in the Battle of Monte Kasyn in Italy; second brother, Rostislav, died 26 (28?) in April 1945 near Berlin when serving in the Kosciuszko army.
Editors of the magazine ‘CULTURE, NATION’ puts on their pages the name of Larisa Heniyush on the Board of the National Heroes.
Translation of Larisa Heniyush poem “Pray” into English (by P. Murzionak) included in the article.

On the 85th Anniversary of Uladzimir Karatkevich. Recall by V. Ipatava.
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, issue 11, September 2015, pp. 34-39)

This year would have turned 85 years of life, one of the most talented Belarusian writers – Uladzimir Sjamjonavich Karatkevich. He was born on November 26, 1930 in Orsha. Vladimir Karatkevich – classic of Belarusian literature, which left its mark in all genres – poetry, prose, drama, journalism, translation. On Wikipedia placed details of life and creation about Karatkevich starting with the origin and childhood, post-war period, years of study and work in Kiev, and the heyday of his talent in Minsk. The most famous his works: Chazenia, The Eye of the Typhoon, From Past Ages, Unforgettable, The Dark Castle Olshansky, King Stakh’s Wild Hunt. The following documentaries were created about Karatkevich: ‘Was. There. Will’, ‘Memories’ and ‘Knight and Servant of Belarus’.
Editors of the magazine ‘CULTURE, NATION’ puts on their pages the name of U. Karatkevich on the Board of the National Heroes. Belarusian poet and writer V. Ipatava presented the remembrance article about the famous Belarusian.

David James Meadows: THE EFFECT OF POLITICAL CULTURE ON DIFFERENT SIDES OF THE POST-SOVIET POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORMS: Comparison of the experience of Latvia and Belarus since 1991
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, issue 11, September 2015, pp. 40-63)

The editorial board of magazine “CULTURE, NATION” considered as positive to publish selected parts of the D.D. Meadows’ Ph.D. thesis (2012, Halifax, Canada) dedicated to the development of the two countries Latvia and Belarus in the post-Soviet period (translated from English into Belarusian by Piotra Murzionak). The author has shown that political and cultural beliefs that formed by the historical religious and cultural environment, have a central impact on the particular political and economic development the country selected. In particular, it is shown that divergent political and economic orientation observed between Latvia and Belarus, were due to different political and cultural worldviews, lifestyles, religion, and historical memory, which inform now Latvians and Belarusians about the ideas, beliefs and preferences concerning patterns of life in relation to the relevant political and economic organization of society and the leadership role of the state in the economy. It is noted that Belarus has its own consistent and unique national identity that includes a variety of ideas, contrary to the regulatory definition, which was built by many researchers. Some shortcomings of the work can be attributed to almost complete absence of those aspects of the historical memory of Belarusians associated with the influence of Western culture, at the time when Belarus was the main constituent of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later, being a member of the Commonwealth. Namely, the Belarusian researchers (A. Krautsevich V. Kuplevich) showed a number of features of the Western culture at that time, which evidenced by a significant influence of the Reformation, Counter-Reformation and other European values on the territory of modern Belarus. The editors believe that readers will be interested to read not only offered excerpts from the thesis, but also the work itself


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Number 10, June 2015


Piotra Murzionak: CHURCH AND NATION
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2015, issue 10, pp. 6-13)

Each of the churches \ confessions alone could have a positive impact on the individual level in the maintenance of appropriate morality and mentality, which should be the basis of the nation. However, the church today is not the important institution of nation-building, and does not contribute to its strengthening and unity. Various churches stand on top of the nation \ state, for objective or subjective reasons sow enmity between faiths and do not take into account the interests of non-believers and atheists.

Despite the fact that a significant part of the population (58.9%) belongs to this or that church, the number of active members, according to various surveys, is rather low (20-27%). Together with a significant share of non-believers in the country (41.1%), and taking into account the current trend to reduction of the role of the Church in the daily life of citizens, a possible church support in the state \ nation-building in the future seems to be low.

The Orthodox Church is an influential church in Belarus, however, its role in the society deliberately exaggerated. According to various polls, Orthodoxy covers less than half of the population of Belarus: the country has 27 confessions with a total of 3210 religious communities, including 1567 religious communities (48.8%) which belong to the Orthodox Church; the proportion of Orthodox among the total population is 48.9%.


Piotra Murzionak: Belarusian Democratic Republic. I. Pre-conditions for the convocation of the 1st All-Belarusian Congress
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2015, issue 10, pp. 14-23)

The general atmosphere in Belarus in 1917 was characterized by war and devastation, saturation by military forces, the weak role of the central Russian Provisional Government, numerous political parties and public organizations acting in Belarus, and a small share of the Belarusians in the cities. The organization and convening of the 1st All-Belarusian Congress were performed with significant delay compared to similar events in Lithuania and Ukraine. The main reasons for that delay were the relative weakness of national-democratic forces, and the uncertainty of ways of nation-building, which considered the construction of a sovereign state or the existence as an autonomous entity within Russia. The convening of the 1st All-Belarusian Congress was held with the participation of the two major forces – the Great Belarusian Council and the Belarusian Regional Committee under conditions of the illegal activities of the Bolshevik government.


Piotra Murzionak: Belarusian Democratic Republic. II. The first All-Belarusian Congress and the Declaration of Independence
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2015, issue 10, pp. 24-34)

The first All-Belarusian Congress, which took place 5-17 December 1917 in Minsk and was attended by delegates from all over the region – 1167 delegates with a casting vote and 705 delegates with a consultative vote – demonstrated the desire of the Belarusian people to self-determination. The Congress declared itself the supreme authority in Belarus, and requested the Council (Rada) of congress to manage the country until the convening of the Constituent Assembly. In this way the Congress did not recognize the illegitimate Bolshevik regime.

The first All-Belarusian Congress was brutally broken up on December 18, 1917 by the Bolsheviks. Similarly, January 7, 1918 in Petrograd, the Bolsheviks dispersed the Russian legislature, which did not recognize illegal, dictatorial power of the Bolsheviks and the Bolsheviks decrees.

In 1918, the work of the Council of the 1st All-Belarusian Congress, which took over the responsibilities entrusted by the Congress, was under the dictatorship of the Bolsheviks (December 18, 1917 to February 18, 1918), and then under German occupation (February 21, 1918 – the end of November 1918).

The Rada of the Congress for objective reasons (German occupation) could not convene a Constituent Assembly and under the yoke of unacceptable conditions for Belarus of Brest peace agreement has assumed historical and revolutionary courage to take power (Charter I, January 20, 2018), to declare the existence of the Belarusian Democratic Republic (Charter II, March 9, 1918), and then to declare the independence of the Belarusian Democratic Republic (Charter III, March 25, 1918). At the time of voting on the declaration of independence of the BDR, the Rada comprised of 77 members, 36 of them elected by the delegates of the 1st All-Belarusian Congress, 6 – from Vilna Belarusian Council, 15 – from the national minorities (Russian, Polish, Jewish), 10 – from the zemstvos, 10 – from the cities.

Piotra Murzionak: Belarusian Democratic Republic. III. Activities of the Rada of the BDR in 1918 under the German occupation
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2015, issue 10, pp. 35-41)

The German government, in accordance with the treaty of Brest did not officially recognize the Belarusian Democratic Republic (BDR) and its Rada. However, the local administration did not oppose the BDR government to deal with issues of culture, education and trade. There was an institution of BNR citizenship (issued passports). At the same time, BDR Rada could not create structures which are absolute signs of any effective state – army, police, financial and judicial systems.

The activities of the Rada and the governments of the BDR has contributed significantly to raising the national consciousness of Belarusians and forced the Bolsheviks to take steps for formation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus. In 1918-1920, there were 3 attempts to form a Belarusian state (SSRB – January 1, 1919; LitBel – February 1918, the Byelorussian SSR – July 31, 1920 – re-establishment of the Byelorussian SSR). The first attempt to create the SSRB, January 1, 1918, was adopted by 181 delegates of the VI-th North-West Regional Party Conference of the Russian Communist Party (bolshevics), which was renamed to the First Congress of the Communist Party of Belarus. Thus, this conference did not represent whole Belarusian people.


Piotra Murzionak: Transfer of the Independence Day of the Republic of Belarus from July 3
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2015, issue 10, pp. 42-45)

In the 20th century, there were six country’s independence day declaration: March 25, 1918, January 1, 1919, February 19, 1919, July 31, 1920, June 27, 1944, and July 27, 1990. Therefore, discretionary choice of July 3 as a day of celebration of Independence Day or the Day of the Republic of Belarus does not correspond to any logic or historical truth. It is obvious that sooner or later this will be fixed when the complete information will be reported to every Belarusian for making a conscious decision in the referendum. The author gives an explanation why, in case of appointment of a new referendum, it can be delivered only two dates for voting: 25 March and 27 July. Date July 27 in many ways is most appropriate to the Independence Day. Date March 25, despite some shortcomings, which the researchers wrote (the German occupation, the impossibility of convening All-Belarusian Congress), can alternatively be supplied to the referendum as the first historical day, when the independence of Belarus in modern history was announced. July 3 can be left as before, the Day of the city of Minsk, or the Day of liberation of Belarus from Nazi invaders.


Andrew Targowski: From Globalization Waves to Global Civilization
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2015, issue 10, pp. 46-64)
Translated into Belarusian by Piotra Murzionak

The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the impact of Five Waves of Globalization. These five Waves of Globalization have involved the world-wide flow of goods, money, information, and people with scope and intensity such that the progress of history has been altered. The waves emerged in the last 500 years and impacted the world’s major civilization, itself a complex of compatibly interactive entities of society, culture and infrastructure within a large frame of territory and time, usually embracing several nations and centuries or even millennia. As the result of these five waves, what we can label the Global Civilization is emerging in the 21st century. Its religion, society and infrastructure will be defined and associated repercussions noted. It is a very rare case when we can observe the rise of a new civilization during our own lifetime. However, this is the case with Global Civilization, a new civilization now replacing Western Civilization.

Advertisements. New books. New books pdf-file
(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, June 2015, issue 10, pp. 65-71)

Magazine “CULTURE, NATION” congratulates Vitaly Voronov, Irina Shumskaja, Yuri Shametskа with the release of new books and wished them a further success. The summary on authors and books is provided in Belarusian.



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Number 9, March 2015



Translated into Belarusian by Natalia Barkar

Source: Nelly Bekus. “Hybrid” Linguistic Identity of Post-Soviet Belarus. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe. Vol 13, No 4, 2014, 26-51.

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2015, issue 9, pp. 6-33)

The issue of Belarusian language politics was analysed as an element of nation-building strategy in post-Soviet Belarus and as part of a linguistic human rights discourse.


(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2015, issue 9, pp. 34-43)

Nowadays, more and more Belarusians fill themselves as unique nation especially due to events taking place in Ukraine. It seems that the national aspirations of the Belarusians will be strengthened, and a healthy nationalism must help them to do that. Belarusian nationalism should be inclusive, or, in other words, healthy, good nationalism – nationalism based on the Belarusian identity, taking into account the interests of national minorities and all social strata. Implementation of the ideas of the Belarusian nationalism will promote to Belarusians: 1. to identify themselves as Belarusians consciously; 2. to build a full nation-state on the principles of inclusiveness; 3. to protect Belarusian nation from destruction and absorption by ‘Russian world’ or by other supranational organizations.


Aljaxandar Zgerski: MAGIC FLICKER

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2015, issue 9, pp. 44-74)

Narrative “Magic flicker” is written in Belarusian in the pamphlet genre. It is about surrealism and reality in today’s Belarus.

Galina Tumilovich: RHAPSODY IN OTTAWA (or life on the border)

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2015, issue 9, pp. 75-84)

Galina Tumilovich writes about her impressions of the first years of life in Canada, provides information about famous people of Russian and Belarusian origin immigrated to Canada in different periods (in Russian).



Participants: Iryna Khadarenka, Inga Popovaite, Anton Shekhovtsov, Piotra Murzionak

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2015, issue 9, pp. 85-95)

On-line Skype discussion was organized by magazine “CULTURE, NATION” on November 23, 2014. In this issue we provide part of discussion in Belarusian related to: “The Nation-building in post-soviet countries: commonalities and differences”.


(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2015, issue 9, pp. 96-100)

A young girl dream was to become a teacher as her lovely father. She was studied at the Pastavy’ teacher college after World War II. It was not allowed to study in their native language, that’s why she along with other young people created a community ‘Union of Belarusian patriots’. Their main goal was to preserve and spread among the population of the Belarusian language and culture. However, she was sentenced by Soviets for 25 years. In GULAG she met with the outstanding Belarusian poet and social activist Larissa Heniyush. Alesya Umpirovich sincerely loves Belarus. Magazine “CULTURE, NATION” wishes her good health, happiness, and well-being.

Magazine “CULTURE, NATION” joins to celebration of VOLGA IPATAVA JUBILEE

(Abstract, magazine “CULTURE, NATION”, March 2015, issue 9, pp. 101-104)

Editorial Board ‘CULTURE, NATION’ congratulates the famous Belarusian writer and public activist, Volga Mikhajlauna Ipatava, with birthday anniversary and wish her good health, happiness, well-being of her family and further success for the benefit of the Motherland. Volga Ipatava is the author of number of collection of poems, collections of short stories, books for children. She is one of the founders аnd well-known master of the Belarusian historical prose. She has created a number of literary images of famous figures of the Belarusian past: Euphrosyne of Polotsk, Duke Vytautas, Duke Algerdas. In 2001-2002 she was the chairman of the Belarusian writers society. Volga Ipatava awarded “the Order of Honor” and medal “Francisk Skaryna”

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